Background: AMV564 is a novel bivalent, bispecific (2x2) CD33/CD3 targeted immunotherapy that binds both CD33 and the invariant CD3ε on T-cell receptors with strong avidity, thus creating an immune synapse between CD33-expressing cells and T cells, initiating T-cell directed lysis of CD33 expressing cells, and inducing expansion, differentiation and proliferation of T cells. By design, AMV564 has reduced clearance and therefore has a longer half-life (t1/2) than monovalent, bispecific T-cell engagers. In preclinical investigations using both leukemic cell lines and primary cells from AML patients, AMV564 eliminated myeloid blasts with picomolar potency and broad activity independent of cytogenetic or molecular abnormalities, CD33 expression level, and disease stage, with no nonspecific activation of T cells (Reusch U et al. Clin Cancer Res 2016;22:5829-38).
Methods: This is an ongoing Phase 1 study with a 3+3 dose-escalation design (NCT03144245). The primary objectives of this study are to characterize the safety, tolerability, and preliminary anti-leukemic activity of AMV564. Evaluation of pharmacokinetics (PK), cytokine changes, and immunophenotyping are secondary objectives. Key inclusion/exclusion criteria are: adults with relapsed and/or refractory AML after 1-2 prior induction regimens (with a standard anthracycline-based regimen or hypomethylating agent) and no more than 2 prior salvage regimens. AMV564 is administered by continuous intravenous infusion (CIV) for 14 consecutive days for up to 2 induction cycles. AMV564 and cytokine (IL2, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ) concentrations were measured by validated immunoassays. T-cell activation was measured using flow cytometry to quantify T cells expressing CD25, CD38, CD69, or HLA-DR.
Results: To date, 19 patients (10 male/9 female) with a median age of 72 years (range 24-84) have been enrolled in 6 dosing cohorts: 0.5, 1.5, 5.0, 15, 50, and 100 mcg/day. Thirteen patients (68%) had secondary AML and/or adverse cytogenetics, including 6 patients (32%) with a p53 mutation. Fifteen patients (79%) had received at least 1 prior salvage regimen and 11 (58%) had received prior intensive chemotherapy, including 6 patients (32%) who had received a high-dose (≥ 1 gm/m2) cytarabine-based regimen. Overall, 18 patients were evaluable for toxicity and response. No dose-limiting toxicity or treatment-related grade ≥ 3 adverse events (AE) were reported. Grade 2 CRS was observed in 1 patient (treated at 50 mcg/day) without a lead-in dose and was managed with drug interruption and 1 dose of tocilizumab. The patient was able to resume dosing and completed the full 14-day scheduled therapy without recurrence of CRS. Subsequent patients treated at 50 mcg/day and above were given a 15 mcg/day lead-in dose for 3 days followed by 11 days at the assigned dose level. The most common grade ≥ 3 treatment-emergent AE has been febrile neutropenia, reported in 39% (7/18) of patients and all considered unrelated to study drug. No patient has died within 30 days of treatment initiation. AMV564 PK was linear with a terminal t1/2 of 2-3 days. Plasma concentrations increased gradually, with times to steady-state concentration of 3-7 days. Marked increases in IL6 (peak concentration, 1.1 ng/mL), IL8 (1.5 ng/mL), and IL10 (0.3 ng/mL) cytokines were observed and increased numbers of activated T-cells were detected post-treatment. Reductions in bone marrow blasts, ranging from 13% to 91%, were observed in 12 of 18 evaluable patients including a partial response after cycle 1 in 1 patient at the 100 mcg/day dose level.
Conclusions: AMV564 is well-tolerated and demonstrates anti-leukemic activity through T-cell engagement. AMV564 has a unique PK profile with a gradual increase in drug concentration and thus the potential for controlled T-cell activation.
Roboz:Daiichi Sankyo: Consultancy; Argenx: Consultancy; Sandoz: Consultancy; Aphivena Therapeutics: Consultancy; Cellectis: Research Funding; Argenx: Consultancy; Eisai: Consultancy; Celgene Corporation: Consultancy; Roche/Genentech: Consultancy; Jazz Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy; Otsuka: Consultancy; Roche/Genentech: Consultancy; Jazz Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy; Otsuka: Consultancy; AbbVie: Consultancy; Astex Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy; Celgene Corporation: Consultancy; Janssen Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy; AbbVie: Consultancy; Astex Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy; Bayer: Consultancy; Novartis: Consultancy; Sandoz: Consultancy; Novartis: Consultancy; Celltrion: Consultancy; Aphivena Therapeutics: Consultancy; Pfizer: Consultancy; Cellectis: Research Funding; Eisai: Consultancy; Orsenix: Consultancy; Celltrion: Consultancy; Bayer: Consultancy; Pfizer: Consultancy; Janssen Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy; Daiichi Sankyo: Consultancy; Orsenix: Consultancy. Cortes:Novartis: Consultancy, Research Funding; Astellas Pharma: Consultancy, Research Funding; Pfizer: Consultancy, Research Funding; Daiichi Sankyo: Consultancy, Research Funding; Arog: Research Funding. Lee:AstraZeneca: Consultancy; Clinipace: Consultancy; Karyopharm Therapeutics Inc: Consultancy; LAM Therapeutics: Research Funding; Amgen: Consultancy. Rettig:Amphivena Therapeutics: Research Funding; Novimmune: Research Funding. Han:Amphivena Therapeutics, Inc: Employment. Guenot:Amphivena Therapeutics, Inc: Employment. Feldman:Amphivena Therapeutics, Inc: Employment.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.
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