Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blast and leukemic stem cells highly express CD123, which is associated with high-risk disease and disease progression. CD123 expression on normal hematopoietic stem cells is minimal, enabling a strategy of preferential ablation of AML with a CD123-targeted approach. Flotetuzumab (MGD006/S80880) is a novel T-cell redirecting (CD123 x CD3) bispecific DART® protein being tested in a phase 1 study in patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).


This phase 1 dose-escalation study is designed to define the safety profile, maximum tolerated dose and schedule (MTDS), and preliminary anti-leukemic activity of flotetuzumab. Relapsed/refractory (R/R) AML or intermediate-2/high-risk MDS patients (pts) are treated on 28-day cycles at doses from 3-1000ng/kg/day on one of 2 dosing schedules (4-day on/3-day off or a continuous 7-day on schedule). To mitigate cytokine-release syndrome (CRS), a one-step lead-in dose (LID) (100ng/kg/day for 4 days) or two-step LID (30 ng/kg/day for 3 days followed by 100ng/kg/day for 4 days) was instituted during Cycle 1/Week 1 (C1W1), followed by the cohort target dose (300-1000ng/kg/day) on either of the dosing schedules on W2-4. Cycle 2 and beyond, all pts were treated on a 4-day on/3-day off schedule at the cohort target dose for a maximum of 12 cycles, with 2 cycles after a complete response or complete remission with incomplete blood count recovery. Steroid-sparing, anti-cytokine therapy was used, if clinically indicated, to manage CRS symptoms. Disease status was assessed by International Working Group (IWG) criteria. Samples were collected for pharmacokinetics, anti-drug antibodies (ADA) and cytokine analysis, including IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and GM-CSF.


45 pts with R/R AML/MDS (89% AML and 11% MDS) have been treated with flotetuzumab, median age of 64 (29-84), and 44% female. The MTDS has been reached at 500ng/kg/day. Overall flotetuzumab has demonstrated manageable toxicity; drug-related adverse events ≥G3 were observed in 20/45 (44%) pts; infusion-related reaction/CRS (IRR/CRS), the most common toxicity, was observed in 34/45 (76%) pts (G3 in 6/45, 13%). The most frequent CRS symptoms were pyrexia (15), chills (10), tachycardia (10), and hypotension (4). Cytokine levels were higher in pts with CRS than in pts without (median IL-6, 116.2 vs. 67.9 pg/mL; IL-8, 191.1 vs. 144.6 pg/mL; IL-10, 867.6 vs. 348.7 pg/mL) and were generally higher with increasing CRS grade. A two-step LID during week 1 appeared to decrease the severity of CRS grade (mean grade reduction 0.54) compared to pts that received a one-step LID during cycle 1. In addition, lower median peak cytokine levels are observed with two-step LID during W1 and after achieving W2 target dose. Fourteen pts treated at the threshold 500 ng/kg/day dose cohort and beyond (700ng/kg/day dose cohort) have completed at least one cycle of treatment and had a post-treatment bone marrow (BM) biopsy. Anti-leukemic activity was documented in 57% (8/14) pts, 6/14 reached IWG criteria (3 CR, 1 CRi, 1 MLF, 1 PR) for an overall response rate (ORR) of 43%, and 2 pts had stable disease and bone marrow (BM) blast reduction of 20 and 25% from baseline, respectively. Blast reduction occurred rapidly, often within one cycle of therapy, and extended beyond flotetuzumab discontinuation. Multispectral immunohistochemistry analysis of BM samples showed flotetuzumab in situ with a significant increase (in CD-8 T cells (1.58-fold increase, p=0.0013). Consistent with T-cell activation, CD-25, CD-69 and PD-1 upregulation on both CD-4 and CD-8 T-cells was also observed in peripheral blood samples.


Flotetuzumab in R/R AML and MDS demonstrated evidence of anti-leukemic activity (ORR 43%) with a manageable safety profile. This program advances an immune-activating agent in treating AML and continues to enroll patients in cohort expansion (24 AML and 24 MDS patients at the MTDS) in the US and Europe. NCT02152956.


Uy: Boehringer Ingelheim: Consultancy; GlycoMimetics: Consultancy; Novartis: Consultancy, Other: Travel Suppport. Foster: Macrogenics: Research Funding; Shire: Honoraria; Pfizer: Research Funding; Amgen: Honoraria; Incyte: Honoraria; Celgene: Research Funding; Celator: Research Funding. Arellano: Cephalon Oncology: Research Funding. Rizzieri: Shire: Research Funding; Erytech: Research Funding. Topp: Roche: Consultancy, Research Funding; Amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Travel, Research Funding; Macrogenics: Consultancy, Research Funding; Celgene: Other: Travel; Regeneron: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding. Martinelli: Incyte, Pfizer, MSD, Abbvie, J&J, Seattle Genetics, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Astellas: Consultancy, Other: Advisory Board, Speakers Bureau. Ciceri: GSK: Other: B-thalassemia gene therapy was developed by Fondazione Telethon and Ospedale San Raffaele and has been inlicenced by GSK that provides funding for the clinical trial, Research Funding. Lelièvre: Institut de recherches international Servier: Employment. La Motte-Mohs: Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre: Patents & Royalties; MacroGenics: Employment, Equity Ownership, Patents & Royalties. Sun: Macrogenics Inc: Employment, Equity Ownership. Baughman: MacroGenics, Inc.: Employment. Shannon: MacroGenics, Inc.: Employment. Fox: Bristol Myers-Squibb: Consultancy, Research Funding; AstraZeneca/MedImmune: Consultancy, Research Funding; PerkinElmer: Consultancy, Research Funding; Janssen/Johnson and Johnson: Consultancy, Research Funding; Argos: Consultancy; Bayer: Consultancy; Definiens: Consultancy; OncoSec: Consultancy, Research Funding; PrimeVax: Consultancy, Equity Ownership; Peregrine: Consultancy; UbiVac: Equity Ownership, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Co-Founder and managing Member of LLC; Ventana/Roche: Consultancy; Viralytics: Consultancy, Research Funding. Bonvini: MacroGenics, Inc.: Employment, Equity Ownership, Research Funding. Wigginton: MacroGenics: Employment, Equity Ownership. Davidson-Moncada: MacroGenics: Employment, Equity Ownership.

Author notes


Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.

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