AlloSCT from HLA-matched MSD has been successful for high-risk SCD, and is the only known curative therapy (Talano/Cairo et al EJH, 2014). We have recently demonstrated 100% EFS and absence of sickle cell symptoms following reduced toxicity conditioning in HLA matched sibling donor (MSD) or cord blood AlloSCT (Bhatia/Cairo et al BMT, 2014). However, 5 out of 6 children lack an HLA MSD without SCD. Only 19% of recipients of African descent will identify a well-matched unrelated donor (MUD) and results after unrelated UCBT are poor (Radhakrishnan/Cairo et al BBMT, 2013). Recent results utilizing matched unrelated donors in a multi-center trial showed unacceptable rates of cGVHD at 62% (95% CI 41-77) (Shenoy et al Blood, 2016). We demonstrated CD34+ selection followed by T-cell addback from MUD in pediatric recipients led to 100% engraftment with minimal aGVHD (Geyer/Cairo et al BJH, 2011). Limitations in the past of various T-cell depletion methods have included a higher incidence of graft failure, delayed immune reconstitution, opportunistic fungal infection and higher incidence of cGVHD. FHI TCD AlloSCT utilizing the approach of CD34+ enrichment and T-cell addback could expand the donor pool and improve outcomes for patients with high risk SCD and have similar outcomes to AlloSCT from HLA MSD.

This SCD consortium trial ( (NCT01461837) is investigating the safety, feasibility, EFS, donor chimerism, graft failure, aGVHD and cGVHD after FHI TCD AlloSCT in high-risk SCD patients.

High risk included: ≥1 CVA, ≥2 ACS, ≥3 VOC in past 2 years, or 2 abnormal TCDs. Patients (2-<21 yrs) who have ≥1 high-risk SCD features were eligible. Patients received hydroxyurea and azathioprine, day -59 - day -11, fludarabine (150mg/m2), busulfan (12.8mg/kg) (targeted trough Css of 600-900), thiotepa (10 mg/kg), cyclophosphamide (200mg/kg), R-ATG (8mg/kg), and TLI (500cGy) followed by FHI T-cell depleted AlloSCT. AGVHD prophylaxis: tacrolimus. We utilized the CliniMACS to enrich for peripheral blood HPC's; target dose of 10 x 106 CD34+ cells/kg with a fixed dose of 2 x 105 CD3+ T cells/kg. The Child Health Rating Inventories (CHRIs) was used to serially collect parent proxy-rated health-related quality of life (HRQL).

Twenty-one patients have been enrolled. Nineteen patients have received AlloSCT to date. Fifteen patients utilized maternal donors and 4 patients utilized paternal donors. Two donors encountered thrombocytopenia that resolved spontaneously. The mean ± SD CD34+ enrichment prior to cryopreservation was 12.66 ± 3.3 x 106/kg and log T-cell depletion was 4.8 ± 0.58. Evaluable pts had early neutrophil engraftment (median day +9), and ≥95% whole blood and RBC (CD71) donor chimerism at 1yr. Probability of aGVHD n=17, 7.1% (CI95: 0-70.0); cGVHD n=17, 20% (CI95: 0.7-59.6) (Figure 1A and 1B). Probability of 1-Year Overall Survival (OS) n=17; 88.2% (CI95: 60.6-96.9) (Figure 1C). Immune reconstitution was robust with 1 yr NK, CD3, CD4 and CD8 204±37 cells/μL, 795±168 cells/μL, 408±102 cells/μL and 375±90 cells/μL, respectively. Two-yr PFT results were also robust with % predicted FVC, FEV1, TLC and DLCO of 89%, 84%, 82%, and 68%, respectively. All survivors are free of SCD symptoms and without signs of progression of multi-organ toxicity. One patient developed late hepatic SOS and died at day +59; one patient died at day +390 due to complications of CGVHD, and one patient died at day +141 of steroid refractory aGVHD, the remainder are alive and free of SCD symptoms with a median follow-up of +711 days (range, +231 to +1684 days). Most importantly, mean + SD HRQL score (0-100) reported at 1 yr for emotional, physical functioning, role, and global scores were 82.9±9.7 points, 82.8±15.8 points, 89.6±13.3 points, and 86±8.2 points, respectively.

Early results indicate promising results in 1 yr OS, stable donor chimerism, and low incidence of acute and/or cGVHD after FHI HCT utilizing CD34 enrichment and CD3/MNC addback in high-risk SCD patients who lack a MSD or URD. A longer term follow-up is needed to assess long-term safety and outcomes. This research was supported by RO1FD004090-01A1.


Walters: AllCells, Inc: Other: Medical Director; bluebird bio: Research Funding; Sangamo Therapeutics: Consultancy; ViaCord Processing Lab: Other: Medical Director. Cairo: Jazz Pharmaceuticals: Speakers Bureau.

Author notes


Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.

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