Introduction: The Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib improves survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) compared to standard chemotherapy or immune therapy. In a subset of patients, somatic mutation (C481S) of its binding site results in acquired resistance to ibrutinib therapy with poor clinical outcome. ARQ 531 is an ATP competitive, orally bioavailable, potent inhibitor of BTK and other relevant kinases including the majority of Src and Tec family kinases. Herein we present preclinical data with ARQ 531 in CLL including C481S mutated BTK and its efficacy versus ibrutinib in the TCL1 mouse model of CLL.
Methods: Potency of ARQ 531 and its binding kinetics were measured in enzymatic and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) binding assays. Primary CLL B cells were negatively selected and treated with 1μM ARQ 531. BCR signaling was investigated by immunoblot following a 1 hour drug incubation. CLL cells migrating towards CXCL12 and CXCL13 after 4 hours across a 5.0 micron transwell insert were counted by flow cytometry. Annexin V and propidium iodide flow cytometry was used to measure CLL viability over a range of drug concentrations and time. CpG mediated CLL cell activation was measured by CD40 and CD86 expression by flow cytometry. In vivo investigation utilized B6 mice engrafted with 1E7 CD5+/CD19+ TCL1 lymphocytes via tail vein injection. Mice were randomized to treatment with vehicle, ARQ 531, or ibrutinib following the establishment of a CD5+/CD19+ population >10% in peripheral blood.
Results: At 72 hours the viability of CLL cells treated with 0.1µM, 1.0µM, or 10.0µM ARQ 531 was found to be 94%, 67%, and 50% that of untreated samples, respectively (p=0.76, p<0.001, p=0.016) in comparison to the 71% relative viability seen with 1µM ibrutinib (p<0.001). ARQ 531 demonstrates dose dependent inhibition of BTK, AKT, and ERK phosphorylation. Stimulation through TLR9 by CpG ligand increases expression of the activation markers CD40 and CD86; ARQ 531 decreased CpG induced expression of CD40 by 25% and CD86 by 40% (p=0.022, p=0.041). ARQ 531 in the presence of CXCL12 or CXCL13 decreased migration by 51% and 66%, respectively (p=0.015, p=0.025), below baseline migration of untreated CLL.
Unlike ibrutinib, ARQ 531 inhibits both wild type and C481S BTK with an IC50 less than 1nM in a biochemical assay, and inhibits phosphorylation of C481S mutated BTK in LV125 transfected HEK293T cells. Cytotoxicity was also observed in CLL cells isolated from patients with C481S BTK mutations, where the viability of cells treated with 1µM ARQ 531 was 72% that of untreated cells at 72 hours (p=0.038). SPR binding assay showed a residence time of 51 minutes in wild type BTK and 56 minutes in C481S mutated BTK.
The TCL1 mouse model displays active BCR signaling and responds to treatment with the BTK inhibitors ibrutinib and acalabrutinib (Ponader S, 2012; Herman SEM, 2015). Following establishment of leukemia in the TCL1 transfer model, we randomized mice to treatment with vehicle (n=14), 25 mg/kg ibrutinib (n=6), 50 mg/kg ARQ 531 (n=14) or 75 mg/kg ARQ 531 (n=14) given by daily gavage. ARQ 531 significantly improved survival over both ibrutinib and vehicle (median survival: 36 days vehicle, 53 days ibrutinib, not reached by 74 days 50mg/kg and 75 mg/kg ARQ 531, p<0.0001). Mice receiving ARQ 531 have consistently lower lymphocyte counts on microscopic examination and reduced CD5+/CD19+ populations via flow cytometry compared to vehicle or ibrutinib. Additionally, we have observed increases in absolute neutrophil count over time in mice receiving ARQ 531. Pharmacokinetic studies are pending; however, in a single oral dose study of 10mg/kg in monkeys, the bioavailability was 72.4% with a CMax of 9µM and a half-life greater than 24 hours.
Conclusion: The BTK inhibitor ARQ 531 is a potent inhibitor of BTK with promising activity both in vitro and in vivo. Multi-targeted inhibition of cytokine, chemokine, and BCR pathways by ARQ 531 decreases activation, migration, and viability of CLL cells. Unlike ibrutinib, ARQ 531 inhibits activation of C481S mutated BTK variants and maintains cytotoxicity in ibrutinib resistant clones. Additionally, ARQ 531 has demonstrated remarkable efficacy in an in vivo TCL1 adoptive transfer model, improving survival to a greater extent than ibrutinib and potentially restoring granulocyte production. These data justify continued preclinical work and development to facilitate transition to clinical trials.
Eathiraj:ArQule, Inc: Employment. Abbadessa:ArQule, Inc: Employment. Schwartz:ArQule, Inc: Employment. Woyach:Acerta: Research Funding; Morphosys: Research Funding; Karyopharm: Research Funding.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.