Background: Therapies for myelofibrosis (MF) are limited and most are palliative. The JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib reduces spleen size and MF-related symptoms and improves survival, but can be limited by dose-dependent anemia and thrombocytopenia. Moreover, nearly half of ruxolitinib responders relapse within 5 years. PI3Kd is highly expressed in MF patient samples, independent of ruxolitinib pre-exposure. In JAK2-mutated cell lines, inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling reduced proliferation and clonogenic potential. The once daily, next generation PI3Kd inhibitor TGR-1202 inhibited PI3K/AKT signaling and led to apoptosis in leukemia and lymphoma cell lines and was well-tolerated in clinical studies, with a toxicity profile distinct from that of ruxolitinib and other PI3Kd inhibitors. We hypothesized that adding TGR-1202 to ruxolitinib could resensitize or augment the response of MF patients with lost or suboptimal response to single-agent ruxolitinib.
Objective: To assess safety of TGR-1202 in combination with ruxolitinib in MF patients
Secondary Objectives: Hematologic response, symptom assessment
Methods: MF patients who had sub-optimal responses to ruxolitinib continued their highest tolerated dose of ruxolitinib without change for ≥ 8 weeks, and were assigned to escalating doses of TGR-1202 in a standard 3+3 algorithm. Adverse events (AEs) were graded by NCI-CTCAE v4.03. Efficacy was assessed according to IWG-MRT consensus response criteria. Symptoms were assessed by the MPN symptom assessment form total symptom score (TSS). All patients received Pneumocystis pneumonia prophylaxis after cycle 1.
Results: Eleven MF patients were enrolled and received 400 mg (n=3), 800 mg (n=6), or 600 mg TGR-1202 (n=2) daily. Nine were evaluable for response. Median age was 66y, 73% were male. All had ECOG PS 0-1. Five patients had mutations in JAK2, 4 in CALR, and 3 in MPL; these were mutually exclusive with exception of 1 patient with CALR and MPL mutations (Table 1). Median number of cycles of TGR-1202 + ruxolitinib treatment was 5 (1-13). Grade 2 anemia was the most common AE (Table 2). Two patients had asymptomatic Grade 3 elevations in amylase and lipase that persisted after drug was held, meeting criteria for dose limiting toxicities (DLTs) in 2 separate cohorts (TGR-1202 800mg+ruxolitinib 15mg BID and TGR-1202 800mg+ruxolitinib 10mg BID). Both patients had peak plasma TGR-1202 concentrations 1.5-2x higher than the other patients receiving 800mg TGR-1202, although steady-state levels were equivalent. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of TGR-1202 in combination with ruxolitinib was not established. Two patients went off-study due to AEs, and 3 due to progressive disease. One of 9 evaluable patients achieved complete remission and 7 had stable disease. Seven of the 9 evaluable patients had improvement in hematologic parameters and 8 had reduced MF symptoms with a median 33% decrease in TSS (Fig. 1).
Conclusions: TGR-1202 + ruxolitinib was well-tolerated. Pharmacokinetic data were consistent with single-agent TGR-1202 (unpublished data), indicating that ruxolitinib does not alter absorption or metabolism of TGR-1202. Grade 3 elevations in amylase and lipase were considered DLTs, per protocol. Although the clinical significance of these asymptomatic laboratory findings is not clear, the protocol was amended to further assay these labs and to exclude concomitant medications with the potential to increase amylase/lipase. Importantly, no grade ≥3 hepatotoxicity, colitis, or thrombocytopenia was seen and no MTD was found. Although only one patient achieved CR, 89% demonstrated clinical benefit with the addition of TGR-1202 to ruxolitinib, supporting further exploration of this combination.
Strickland:Alexion Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy; Ambit: Consultancy; Baxalta: Consultancy; Boehringer Ingelheim: Consultancy, Research Funding; CTI Biopharma: Consultancy; Daiichi Sankyo: Consultancy; Sunesis Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy, Research Funding; Abbvie: Research Funding; Astellas Pharma: Research Funding; Celator: Research Funding; Cyclacel: Research Funding; GlaxoSmithKline: Research Funding; Karyopharm Therapeutica: Research Funding; Sanofi: Research Funding. Miskin:TG Therapeutics, Inc: Employment, Equity Ownership. Cavers:TG Therapeutics: Employment, Equity Ownership. Sportelli:TG Therapeutics, Inc.: Employment, Equity Ownership. Michaelis:Pfizer: Equity Ownership; Cellgene Corporation: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; Incyte Corporation: Consultancy, Honoraria. Mesa:CTI: Research Funding; Promedior: Research Funding; Celgene: Research Funding; Gilead: Research Funding; Incyte: Research Funding; Galena: Consultancy; Ariad: Consultancy; Novartis: Consultancy. Savona:Amgen Inc.: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; TG Therapeutics: Research Funding; Ariad: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Takeda: Research Funding; Sunesis: Research Funding; Incyte: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Celgene: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Gilead: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.