Introduction: Localized immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (LAL) is a rare disease. Systematic data regarding its presentation, management and patient outcomes are limited to small case series. Our objective was to systematically describe the Mayo clinic experience of patients with LAL.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed clinical records of 403 patients with biopsy proven localized amyloidosis seen at the Mayo Clinic between 1969-2014. Median follow-up for survival and progression were 72 months and 39 months, respectively
Results: OF 5551 patients with light chain amyloidosis seen at the Mayo clinic during the study period, 403 (7%) had LAL. Median age at diagnosis was 60 years (range, 13-93) and 51% of them were male. Sites involved included: urothelial (bladder, ureter, renal pelvis), 75 (19%), larynx, 51 (13%), lung parenchyma, 42 (11%), skin, 44 (11%), synovial tissue 36 (9%), tracheobronchial, 31 (8%), gastrointestinal tract, 30 (8%), seminal vesicles, 22 (6%), eyes, 23 (6%), pharynx 22 (6%) and other 24 (6%). Typing was performed in 178 (45%) cases. A monoclonal protein was detected in 23 of 351 (7%) evaluated cases, 5 of which had different light restriction from that of LAL. Thirty one (8%) patients had a co-existent autoimmune disease. No patients progressed to systemic AL. Of 403, 109 (27%) were observed or received supportive care only and 241 (60%) underwent local removal of the amyloid deposits. Sixty-four (16%) patients required repeated interventions (median 1, range 1-4, upper decile requiring 4 interventions) for progressive disease. The most common sites requiring repeated interventions were: urothelial (33%), laryngeal (19%) and tracheobronchial (8%). Ten year overall survival (OS) and progression free survival were 79% and 61%, respectively and there was no difference according to site of involvement. Of the 70 patients that died during the follow-up period, cause of death was known for 29 and death was attributed to LAL in only 2 cases.
Conclusions: In the largest series of patients with LAL reported so far we demonstrated that LAL has an excellent prognosis but can sometimes be associated with significant morbidity. Although our study was limited by incomplete typing in 55% of cases, it appears that true LAL does not "progress" to systemic amyloidosis. However, systemic amyloidosis can frequently involve organs typical involved only in LAL;, therefore a complete work-up for systemic disease should be performed in all patients with LAL. Treatment usually involves local excision for symptom palliation. In 16% of cases, repeated interventions for relapse/progression were required and as a result, follow-up is recommended, especially for cases involving the urothelial and upper respiratory tract.
Kumar:Skyline, Noxxon: Honoraria; Celgene, Millennium, Onyx, Novartis, Janssen, Sanofi: Research Funding; Celgene, Millennium, Onyx, Janssen, Noxxon, Sanofi, BMS, Skyline: Consultancy.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.