Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Pomalidomide-dexamethasone (Pom-Dex) represents an important therapeutic advance for the treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM). Nonetheless, patients with lenalidomide (Len) and bortezomib (double) refractory disease have a median progression-free survival of only 3.7 months with the combination, thus highlighting the need for further progress. Ixazomib, a novel, oral proteasome inhibitor, has pharmacodynamic properties that may allow for improved proteasome inhibition at the tumoral level and has synergistic activity in combination with IMiDs in preclinical MM models. Clinical studies have demonstrated activity as a single agent in relapsed/refractory MM and in combination with Len-Dex in newly diagnosed patients. We therefore evaluated the safety and preliminary efficacy of the combination of Pom, ixazomib and Dex in patients with Len and proteasome inhibitor (PI) refractory MM in the phase I portion of Alliance study A061202.

METHODS:

Key eligibility criteria included: relapsed or relapsed/refractory disease; ≥2 prior lines of therapy; double refractory disease (progression on or ≤60 days from the last dose of a Len- and PI-based therapy); ECOG performance status (PS) ≤2; absolute neutrophil count ≥1.0 x 109/L, platelets ≥50 x 109/L, creatinine clearance ≥50 mL/min; and ≤grade 2 peripheral neuropathy. Patients were treated with escalating doses of Pom and ixazomib utilizing a standard 3 + 3 dose escalation design in combination with standard dose Dex (Table 1). Patients received 2 - 4 mg of Pom on days 1 - 21; ixazomib 3 - 4 mg on days 1, 8 and 15; and Dex 40 mg (20 mg for those >75 years of age) on days 1, 8, 15 and 22 of a 28-day cycle. Patients were treated until disease progression or the development of unacceptable toxicity.

RESULTS:

Out of 17 evaluable patients, the median age was 64 (range 47 - 77) and the median time from diagnosis 5.5 years (range 3.3 - 8.3). Sixty-five percent, 24% and 12% had ISS stage 1, 2 and 3 disease at the start of treatment, respectively, and 65% had high-risk cytogenetics (gain of 1q, del[17p] and/or high-risk IgH translocation). All patients had an ECOG PS of 0 or 1 (59% and 41%, respectively). Of 14 patients with complete prior treatment data available, 100% had received prior Len, bortezomib and Dex, 71% alkylating agents (cyclophosphamide or low dose melphalan), 71% autologous stem cell transplant and 29% carfilzomib. Eighty-two percent were refractory to sequential Len- and bortezomib regimens, whereas 6% were refractory to a prior Len/proteasome inhibitor combination (12% not reported). Two dose limiting toxicities have occurred to date, 1 each at dose levels 3 and 4 (Table 1). Grade 3 and 4 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and lymphopenia attributable to protocol therapy have been seen in 29%/6%, 12%/6% and 29%/0% of patients, respectively. Twelve percent of patients have experienced grade 3 infection, regardless of attribution, but none have experienced ≥grade 4 infection. The incidence of therapy-related peripheral neuropathy was 24%, none of which was ≥grade 3 in severity. Other common, therapy-related adverse events have included fatigue (53%), nausea (24%), constipation (18%), diarrhea (29%), rash (18%), tremor (24%), anxiety (18%), insomnia (29%) and edema (24%), all of which were ≤grade 2 in severity. Fifty-three percent of patients had at least 1 of the 3 medications dose reduced, and 35% experienced dose delays. To date, 1 patient has discontinued therapy due to adverse events and 1 due to refusal of further therapy. Of 13 patients receiving >1 cycle of therapy, the best overall response rate was 62% (7 partial responses, 1 very good partial response).

CONCLUSIONS:

The Pom, ixazomib and Dex combination has demonstrated an acceptable toxicity profile thus far with encouraging preliminary efficacy. Updated results of the phase I portion of the study will be presented at the meeting, including the maximum tolerated dose that will be used in the randomized, phase II portion of the study, in which the 3-drug combination will be compared with Pom-Dex in double refractory MM patients.

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02004275. Supported by U10CA180821, U10CA180882.

Table 1.
Dose Level Pomalidomide Dose (mg) Ixazomib Dose (mg) DLT Evaluable DLTs 
None 
None 
1 febrile neutropenia 
4 1 grade 4 thrombocytopenia lasting 8 days 
Dose Level Pomalidomide Dose (mg) Ixazomib Dose (mg) DLT Evaluable DLTs 
None 
None 
1 febrile neutropenia 
4 1 grade 4 thrombocytopenia lasting 8 days 

‡enrollment into dose level 4 is complete.

Disclosures

Voorhees:Janssen, Celgene, GlaxoSmithKline, Onyx Pharmaceuticals and Oncopeptides: Consultancy, Research Funding; Array BioPharma, Celgene, GlaxoSmithKline, and Oncopeptides: Consultancy; Millennium/Takeda and Novartis: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Off Label Use: We will discuss the use of Ixazomib, an agent that is not FDA approved, in combination with pomalidomide and dexamethasone for the treatment of multiple myeloma.. Richardson:Jazz Pharmaceuticals: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Gentium S.p.A.: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Millennium Takeda: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Celgene Corporation: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees.

Author notes

*

Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.