JAK2 V617F can be identified in the majority of polycythemia vera cases and in 50% of essential thrombocythemia and idiopathic myelofibrosis patients. JAK2 inhibitors including ruxolitinib, fedratinib and lestaurtinib display clinical activity in trials for PV, ET and IMF, and ruxolitinib has recently been approved for the treatment of primary and secondary myelofibrosis. In other malignancies it has been demonstrated that acquired resistance to kinase inhibitors emerge due to secondary resistance mutations in the targeted kinase. To identify JAK2 point mutations mediating ruxolitinib resistance and predict alternatively treatment strategies, we exposed JAK2 V617F expressing Ba/F3 cells to ruxolitinib. Surprisingly, sublines resistant to ruxolitinib at 1000nM, 2000nM and even 4000nM did not harbor point mutations neither in the kinase nor in the pseudokinase domain of JAK2. However, western blot analysis of sublines resistant to ruxolitinib revealed a 45-kDa JAK2 variant together with full length JAK2 V617F protein in 87% of the cases. Sequencing of the short form in drug resistant clones revealed a novel JAK2 variant missing amino acids 76 to 820 resulting in the N-terminal FERM domain directly fused to the kinase domain of JAK2 (FERM-JAK2). FERM-JAK2 was highly resistant to the ATP-competitive JAK2 inhibitors ruxolitinib and fedratinib. Phospho-deficient mutant studies provided evidence that FERM-JAK2 preferentially exist in an inactive state. This would impede drug binding and explain the resistant phenotype of FERM-JAK2.
However, in this study we could not identify other genetic TKI resistant JAK2 variants than FERM-JAK2. This is in remarkable contrast to BCR-ABL mediated CML, where more than 90 residues have been described as TKI resistant variants and might indicate that in case of JAK2, the residues which mediate the drug resistance might comprise the JAK2 kinase function. Therefore, we treated JAK2 V617F expressing Ba/F3 cells with a chemical mutagen (ENU) to predict point mutations in JAK2 that might cause resistance towards the ruxolitinib. Surprisingly, after ENU pretreatment the frequency of drug resistant clones increased and most of the drug resistant clones displayed point mutations in the JAK2 kinase domain. In this screen, we identified L902Q, Y931C, L983F as the most frequent mutations and L902Q+R938E, L902Q+N947Q, L902Q+E1028K and L983F+Q959H as minor mutations. All these mutations confer cross-resistance across a panel of different JAK2 kinase inhibitors except L983FJAK2. L983FJAK2 reduces the sensitivity of JAK2-dependent cells to ruxolitinib and JAK inhibitor-1 but does not reduce the sensitivity of cell proliferation against fedratinib, thereby indicated that we identified a compound specific resistant mutations which is not an ATP-competitor specific mutation.
Structure based modeling studies suggest that ruxolitinib is held by numerous hydrophobic interactions with residues Leu 855, Val 863, Ala 880, Val 911, Met 929, Leu 932 and Leu 983 that line the binding pocket. The aromatic ring of Tyr 931 is close enough to the pyrimidine ring to have p-p interaction. Surprisingly, this important interaction does not seem to be critical for the orientation of the inhibitor in the binding pocket as the Y931C mutation does not lead to a different binding pose. Leu 902 does not directly interact with ruxolitinib, however, it is close to the binding pocket and its mutation to Gln with a polar side chain significantly disturbs the inhibitor binding, thus explaining the high resistance of this mutation to ruxolitinib. Mutation of Leu 983 to Phe disrupts important hydrophobic interactions (e.g. Ala 880, Val 911, Met 929) with the pyrrolopyrimidine moiety and induces aromatic-aromatic interaction between the new phenyl ring and the pyrrol and pyrazol rings. Finally, our study also provided evidence that HSP90 inhibitors 17-AAG and geldanamycin are highly potent against TKI resistant FERM-JAK2, L902Q, Y931C and L983FJAK2 through JAK2 degradation and inhibition of the JAK2-STAT5 signaling axis. Taken together, our study highlight HSP90 inhibitors as a promising therapeutic agent in drug resistant mutations against tyrosine kinase inhibitors in MPN.
No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.