Background: Mutations in the zinc finger transcription factor GATA2 are responsible for: MonoMAC, monocytopenia with nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections; DCML, dendritic cell, monocyte and lymphoid cell deficiency; Emberger's syndrome with lymphedema and monosomy 7; and familial myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)/acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) represents the only definitive therapy for GATA2 deficiency.
Methods: Eleven patients with GATA2 deficiency received a myeloablative-conditioning regimen (2 matched related donors or MRD, 4 matched unrelated donors or URD, and 5 haploidentical related donors. MRD and URD received busulfan 3.2 mg/kg/day and fludarabine 40 mg/m2/day on days -6, -5, -4, and -3. Haploidentical related donors received cyclophosphamide 14.5 mg/kg on day's -6 and -5, fludarabine 30 mg/m2/day on day's -6 to -2, busulfan 3.2 mg/kg/day on day's -4 and -3, and 200 cGy TBI on day -1. MRD and URD recipients received tacrolimus and short course methotrexate post-transplant, while haploidentical related donor recipients received cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg/day on days + 3 and +4 followed by tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil as post-transplant immunosuppression for graft-versus-host disease.
Results: Ten of the 11 (91%) of patients are alive and disease-free at a mean follow-up of 12 months (range 1 mo to 24 mo). One URD recipient died from persistent acute myelogenous leukemia. Four patients developed graft-versus-host disease, one case Grade 4. All 10 patients who survived had complete reconstitution of the monocyte, NK, and B-lymphocyte compartments, the three cell compartments that were severely deficient pre-transplant. All 10 patients had reversal of the infection susceptibility phenotype. In particular, there were no recurrences of NTM infections. Importantly, all 10 patients had correction of the cytogenetic abnormalities present pre-transplant (5 patients with trisomy 8 and 1 patient with monosomy 7).
Conclusions: Myeloablative HSCT in GATA2 deficiency results in uniform engraftment and reversal of the hematologic, cytogenetic, and clinical manifestations of GATA2 deficiency. There was a low regimen-related toxicity, even in this cohort of patients with considerable co-morbidities. We anticipate that with HSCT earlier in the clinical course, before significant organ damage or clonal evolution of MDS to AML or CMML occurs, the outcome of allogeneic HSCT in patients with GATA2 deficiency will continue to improve. Haploidentical related donor transplant appears to be particularly well suited for this disease, especially when the disease presents as a hypocellular myelodysplastic syndrome.
No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.
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