Background: Lintuzumab, a humanized anti-CD33 monoclonal antibody, targets myeloid leukemia cells but has only modest activity in AML. To increase the antibody’s potency yet avoid nonspecific cytotoxicity of β-emitting isotopes, 225Ac (t½=10 d), a radiometal that yields 4 α-particles, was conjugated to lintuzumab. A phase I trial showed that 225Ac-lintuzumab is safe at doses ≤ 3 µCi/kg and has anti-leukemic activity across all dose levels studied (Jurcic et al. ASH, 2011). We are conducting a multicenter, phase I dose-escalation trial to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), toxicity, and biological activity of fractionated-dose 225Ac-lintuzumab in combination with LDAC.
Patients and Methods: Patients ≥ 60 yrs who had untreated AML with poor prognostic factors, e.g., an antecedent hematologic disorder, unfavorable cytogenetic or molecular abnormalities, and significant comorbidities, were eligible. Patients received LDAC 20 mg twice daily for 10 d every 4-6 wks for up to 12 cycles. During Cycle 1, beginning 4-7 days after completion of LDAC, two doses of 225Ac-lintuzumab were given approximately one week apart. To prevent radiation-induced nephrotoxicity, patients were given furosemide while receiving 225Ac-lintuzumab and spironolactone for one year afterward.
Results: Nine patients (median age, 76 yrs; range, 73-81 yrs) were treated. Seven patients (78%) had a history of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), for which five (56%) received prior therapy with hypomethylating agents (n=4) or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (n=1). One patient (11%) had chronic myeloid leukemia in a molecularly undetectable state at the time of AML diagnosis. Six patients (67%) had intermediate-risk cytogenetics, and three (33%) had unfavorable cytogenetics. The median CD33 expression was 76% (range, 45-100%). Patients received 225Ac-lintuzumab at doses of 0.5 (n=3) or 1 (n=6) μCi/kg/fraction. Total administered activity ranged from 68-199 μCi. The median number of cycles administered was 2 (range, 1-4). Dose-limiting toxicity was seen in one patient receiving 1 µCi/kg/fraction who had grade 4 thrombocytopenia with bone marrow aplasia persisting > 6 wks after receiving 225Ac-lintuzumab. Hematologic toxicities included grade 4 neutropenia (n=1) and thrombocytopenia (n=3). Grade 3/4 non-hematologic toxicities included febrile neutropenia (n=6), pneumonia (n=2), bacteremia (n=1), cellulitis (n=1), transient increase in creatinine (n=1), hypokalemia (n=1), and generalized weakness (n=1). Bone marrow blast reductions were seen in 5 of 7 patients (71%) evaluated after Cycle 1. Mean blast reduction was 61% (range, 34-100%). Three of the 7 patients (43%) had marrow blast reductions of ≥ 50%; however, no remissions were observed. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 2.5 mos (range, 1.7-15.7+ mos). Median overall survival (OS) from study entry was 5.4 mos (range, 2.2-24 mos). For the 7 patients with prior MDS, median OS was 9.1 mos (range 2.3-24 mos).
Conclusions: Fractionated-dose 225Ac-linutuzmab in combination with LDAC is feasible, safe, and has anti-leukemic activity. Dose escalation continues to define the MTD, with planned doses up to 2 µCi/kg/fraction. Additional patients will be treated at the MTD in the phase II portion of this trial to determine response rate, PFS, and OS.
Ravandi:Actinium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: Research Funding. Pagel:Actinium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: Equity Ownership, Research Funding. Park:Actinium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: Research Funding. Wahl:Actinium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: Research Funding. Earle:Actinium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: Employment, Equity Ownership. Cicic:Actinium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: Employment, Equity Ownership. Scheinberg:Actinium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: Equity Ownership, Research Funding.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.