Osteoblasts (OST) found within the endosteal niche are important regulators of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells (HSPC) under steady state and during hematopoietic reconstitution. OST are derived from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) following osteogenic differentiation. MSC and OST secrete a wide array of soluble factors that sustain hematopoiesis. Recently, we showed that media conditioned with OST derived from MSC (referred as M-OST) after 6 days of osteogenic differentiation were superior to MSC conditioned media (CM) for the expansion of cord blood (CB) progenitors, and CB cells expanded with M-OST CM supported a more robust engraftment of platelets in NSG mice after transplantation. These findings raised the possibility that M-OST could be superior to MSC for the ex vivoexpansion HSPC.
In this study, we set out to test the hypothesis that the growth modulatory activity of M-OST would vary as a function of their maturation status. The objectives were to first monitor the impact of M-OST differentiation and maturation status on the expression of soluble factors that promote HSPC expansion and in second, to investigate the capacity of M-OST CMs prepared from M-OST at distinct stages of differentiation to support the expansion and differentiation of HSPCs in culture. M-OST at distinct stages of differentiation were derived by culturing bone marrow MSC in osteogenic medium for various length of time (3 to 21 days). All CB CD34+ enriched (92±7% purity) cell cultures were done with serum free media conditioned or not with MSC or M-OST and supplemented with cytokines SCF, TPO and FL.
We first confirmed the progressive differentiation and maturation of M-OST as a function of osteogenic culture length, which was evident by the induction of the osteogenic transcription factors Osterix, Msx2 and Runx2 mRNAs, the gradual increase in osteopontin and alkaline phosphatase positive cells and quantitative increases in calcium deposit. Next, we investigated the expression in MSC and M-OSTs of genes known to collaborate for the expansion of HSPCs by Q-PCR. Transcript copy numbers for IGFBP-2 increased swiftly during osteogenic differentiation, peaking at day-3 (˃100-fold vs MSC, n=2) and returning below MSC level by day-21. In contrast, ANGPTL members (ANGPTL-1, -2, -3 and -5) remained superior in M-OSTs throughout osteogenic differentiation with expression levels peaking around day 6 (n=2).
Next, we tested the capacity of media conditioned with primitive (day-3, -6), semi-mature (day-10, -14) and mature M-OST (day-21) to support the growth of CB cells. All M-OST CMs increased (p˂0.03) the growth of total nucleated cells (TNC) after 6 days of culture compared to non-conditioned medium used as control (mean 2.0-fold, n=4). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between cell growth and M-OST maturation status though differences between the different M-OST CMs tested were not significant. The capacity of M-OST CMs to increase (mean 2-fold, n=4) the expansion of CD34+ cells was also shared by all M-OST CMs (p˂0.05), as supported by significant increases with immature day-3 (mean ± SD of 18 ± 6, p˂0.02) and mature day-21 M-OST CMs (14 ± 5, p˂0.05) vs. control (8 ± 3, n=4). Conversely, expansions of TNC and CD34+ cells in MSC CM cultures were in-between that of control and M-OST CMs cultures. Interestingly, M-OST CMs also modulated the expansion of the HSPC compartment. Indeed, while the expansion of multipotent progenitors defined as CD34+CD45RA+ was promoted in control culture (ratio of 4.5 for CD34+CD45RA+/CD34+CD45RA- cells), M-OST CMs supported greater expansion of the more primitive CD34+CD45RA- HSPC subpopulation reducing the ratio to 3.3±0.4 for M-OST cultures (cumulative mean of 10 cultures, n=2). Moreover, the expansions of CD34+CD38- cells and of the long term HSC-enriched subpopulation (CD34+CD38-CD45RA-Thy1+) in M-OST CM cultures were respectively 2.7- and 2.8-fold greater than those measured in control cultures (n=2-4). Finally, the impact of M-OST CMs on the expansion of myeloid progenitors was investigated using a colony forming assay; expansion of myeloid progenitors were superior in all M-OST CM cultures (1.6±0.2 fold, n=2).
In conclusion, our results demonstrate that M-OST rapidly acquire the expression of growth factors known to promote HSPC expansion. Moreover, the capacity of M-OST CMs to support the expansion of HSPCs appears to be a property shared by M-OST at various stages of maturation.
No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.