Fanconi anemia (FA) is the most common inherited bone marrow failure syndrome. FA patients develop bone marrow failure during the first decade of life due to attrition of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). FA patients also develop other hematologic manifestations, including myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) due to clonal evolution. FA is caused by biallelic mutants in one of sixteen FANC genes, the products of which cooperate in the FA/BRCA DNA repair pathway and regulate cellular resistance to DNA cross-linking agents. Bone marrow failure in FA may result, directly or indirectly, from hyperactivation of cell autonomous or microenvironmental growth suppressive pathways induced due to genotoxic stress. Recent studies suggest that one suppressive pathway may be the hyperactive p53 response observed in HSPCs from FA patients.
In order to further identify suppressive mechanisms accounting for bone marrow failure in FA, we performed a whole genome-wide shRNA screen in FA cells. Specifically, we screened for candidate genes whose knockdown would rescue cellular growth inhibition and genotoxic stress induced by a DNA cross-linking agent mitomycin C (MMC). We transduced a FA-deficient human fibroblast line with pools of shRNAs and screened for rescue of MMC-inhibited growth. Selected shRNA inserts were identified by next generation sequencing.
The top hits in the screen were shRNAs directed against multiple components of the TGF-β signaling pathway. Consistent with this, disruption of the TGF-β signaling pathway by shRNA/sgRNA-mediated knockdown of SMAD3 or TGFR1 (downstream components of the TGF- β pathway) rescued growth of multiple cell lines from several FA complementation groups in presence of genotoxic agents (e.g. MMC or acetaldehyde). Pharmacologic inhibition of the TGF- β pathway using small molecule inhibitors resulted in improved survival of FA-deficient lymphoblast cells in presence of MMC or acetaldehyde, suggesting that a hyperactive, TGF-β-mediated, suppression pathway may account, at least in part, for reduced FA cell growth. Interestingly, genes encoding TGF-β pathway signaling components were highly expressed in the bone marrow from FA patients and FA mice. Moreover, disruption of the TGF- β pathway by shRNA-mediated knockdown of SMAD3 rescued the growth defects of primary HSPCs from FA-deficient murine bone marrow. To further implicate the TGF-β pathway, we established primary stromal cell lines from the bone marrow of FA-deficient mice as well as human FA patients. We confirmed that TGF-β signaling was hyperactive in these stroma cells resulting in growth suppression and elevated phospho-ERK levels due to non-canonical signaling of the pathway. Inhibitors of TGF-β signaling partially rescued the growth defects and reduced phospho-ERK levels in these FA stroma cells.
The deficiency of FA DNA repair pathway leads to cellular defects in homologous recombination (HR) repair and hyperactivation of toxic non-homologous end joining (NHEJ)-mediated repair. We therefore tested whether inhibition of the TGF-β pathway in FA cells could rescue HR defects and account for the improvement of FA cellular growth. Interestingly, disruption of the TGF-β signaling pathway caused a decrease in NHEJ activity. Disruption of the TGF-β pathway also resulted in reduced MMC-mediated DNA damage and increased HR.
Taken together, our results demonstrate that primary FA hematopoietic and bone marrow stromal cells exhibit hyperactive TGF-β signaling accounting at least in part for the bone marrow failure in FA. Inhibitors of the TGF-β signaling pathway may therefore be useful in the clinical treatment of patients with bone marrow failure and Fanconi anemia.
No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.