Background: ACE910, asymmetric bispecific monoclonal antibodies to activated factor IX (IXa) and factor X, mimics the cofactor function of activated factor VIII (VIIIa) by modulating an optimal position on the tenase assembly. The estimated therapeutic range of ACE910 shows ~30% of thrombin generation in native tenase assembly, supporting that the structure on ACE910-mimicking tenase assembly is different from that on native tenase. Being close to physiological structure consisting from factor IXa, factor X, and factor VIIIa is important for potentiating the clotting function. We examined the effects of factor VIII subunits (light chain, heavy chain, A1 and A2, C2) on ACE910-tenase.
Materials/Methods: The factor VIII light chain and heavy chain were isolated from EDTA-treated recombinant factor VIII following chromatography on SP- and Q- Sepharose columns. The A2 and A1 subunits were purified from thrombin-cleaved factor VIII heavy chain by Heparin-, SP- Sepharose columns. Purified factor Xa generation assays was examined with (i) factor VIII subunit (0-40 nM), ACE910 (10 µg/ml), phospholipid (PL) (40 µM), factor IXa (1 nM) and factor X (200 nM), (ii, iii) the A2 or heavy chain (40 nM), ACE910 (10 µg/ml), PL (40 µM), factor IXa and factor X (1 or 0-80 nM, and 0-300 or 200 nM, respectively). These mixtures were reacted for five minutes (i, ii) or one minute (iii). These assays were conducted at 37 °C.
Results: (i) The factor Xa generation in ACE910-tenase complex in the absence of factor VIIIa was 10.1±2.2 nM. With the intact heavy chain and A2, amounts of factor Xa were increased dose-dependently, resulting in 1.3- and 1.2-fold increases, respectively. While, the light chain and A1 subunit failed to increase at all. (ii) Vmax for factor X in ACE910-tenase was 173.0±7.0 nM and Km was 31.2±3.9 nM. Vmax obtained with the heavy chain or A2 was 175.9±6.1 or 159.0±6.1 nM, whilst Km was 17.0±2.2 or 31.9±3.5 nM, respectively, indicating that the heavy chain enhanced the binding affinity for factor X in ACE910-tenase. (iii) Vmax for factor IXa in ACE910-tenase was 43.8±2.7 nM and Km was 36.9±4.8 nM. With the heavy chain or A2, Vmax was 46.8±3.0 or 45.0±3.1 nM, and Km was 36.4±3.0 or 32.1±4.9 nM, respectively, indicating that either the heavy chain or A2 did not enhance the catalytic activity and the binding affinity for factor IXa in ACE910-tenase.
Conclusion: ACE910-tenase assembly seems to be close to physiological structure by the presence of intact heavy chain interacting with factor X. In addition, ACE910 may substitute the position such as the factor VIII(a) light chain associated with FIXa and FX on ACE910-tenase assembly defecting factor VIII.
Minami:Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.: Research Funding. Nogami:Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding. Kitazawa:Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.: Employment, Equity Ownership, Patents & Royalties. Hattori:Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.: Employment, Equity Ownership, Patents & Royalties. Shima:Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.