Introduction: Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) is characterized by thrombosis and/or recurrent fetal loss in the presence of persistently elevated antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA). The majority of pathologic APLA are directed against β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI), an abundant plasma phospholipid binding protein. APLA/anti-β2GPI antibodies activate endothelial cells in a β2GPI-dependent manner, though the underlying mechanisms are not well defined.
Objective: To define the role of NOX1 in the generation of ROS and activation of endothelial cells by anti-β2GPI antibodies.
Methods: Endothelial cells were incubated with β2GPI and either control or affinity-purified anti-β2GPI antibodies in the absence or presence of diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in treated cells and conditioned medium were measured by using fluorescent dyes (CM-H2DCFDA and CellROX Deep Red) or luminescent substrate. NOX mRNA and protein expression were assessed using quantitative PCR and immunoblot. Endothelial cell activation was measured by increased expression of E-selectin.
Results: Incubation of endothelial cells with β2GPI and anti-β2GPI antibodies stimulated ROS generation in endothelial cells, as well as the release of ROS into conditioned medium. The expression of NOX1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased in endothelial cells exposed to anti-β2GPI antibodies, but not control IgG (Figure 1). The ability of β2GPI and anti-β2GPI antibodies to induce endothelial cell E-selectin mRNA expression was blocked by pretreatment of cells with DPI (Figure 2), suggesting that ROS is required for downstream events underlying endothelial cell activation.
Conclusions: Endothelial cells exposed to β2GPI and anti-β2GPI antibodies generate ROS, which is subsequently released into the conditioned medium. NOX1 appears to be essential for ROS generation. The impairment of endothelial cell activation by DPI suggests that NOX is also essential for endothelial cell activation by anti-β2GPI antibodies. We hypothesize that production of ROS by NOX plays a central role in APLA-induced endothelial dysfunction.
Acknowledgment: This work was supported by an ASH Bridge Grant
No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.