Graft versus Host Disease (GvHD) is the major complication of allogeneic hematopoetic cell transplantation (HCT). It mostly affects the gastrointestinal tract, skin or liver, but may also involve the central nervous system (CNS). Although GvHD is believed to be mainly mediated by T cells recognizing HLA mismatches or minor histocompatibility antigens (MHC-restricted peptides differing in single amino acids based on protein sequence variants between donor and recipient due to genetic differences), limited evidence is known about the exact MHC-restricted T cell epitopes recognized on recipient cells. In this study, we evaluated the clinical manifestation of GvHD in the posterior eye segment (PS) as part of the CNS and characterized self-antigens mediating reactivity of allogeneic T cells.
The first patient group comprised 6 individuals (3 women and 3 men, median age 40 years, range 20-58 years) with diseases of the PS after HCT. Diseases were ALL (n=4), AML (n=1) and MPS (n=1). 8 transplantations (1-2 per patient) were performed using grafts from matched related (MRD, n=1), matched unrelated (MUD, n=4), mismatched unrelated (MMUD, n=2) or haploidentical (n=1) donors. The second group included 22 patients (7 women and 15 men, median age 55 years, range 29-69 years) irrespective of ocular symptoms recruited before HCT. Diseases were AML (n=7), CML (n=1), MDS (n=4), MPS (n=5), multiple myeloma (n=1) and lymphoma (n=4). All patients received grafts from HLA-identical donors (MRD n=7, MUD n=15).
GvHD prophylaxis was performed using standard protocols. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and DNA were isolated from blood samples. Autologous cell samples were blood samples before or oral mucosa after HCT. Allogeneic cells were obtained from patients with complete donor chimerism. DNA sequencing was performed to identify donor-recipient single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Retina specific candidate epitopes derived from the retinal guanylate cyclase 2D (GUCY2D), the retinoid binding protein (RBP) and the guanylate cyclase activating proteins A1 und B1 (GUCA1A/GUCA1B) were predicted based on known SNP and individual protein sequences using the database EpiToolKit. PBMC were prestimulated with both wildtype and SNP peptides. T cell reactivity was determined in ELISpot and intracellular cytokine staining. Moreover, T cells from 5 family donors were evaluated. All epitopes were evaluated in at least 8 healthy individuals carrying the respective HLA-subtype. Immunogenicity of MHC-I restricted candidate epitopes was determined in in vitro priming.
PS diagnoses were optical atrophy (n=2), in 1 case combined with a selective dysfunction of the cones, optic neuritis (n=2), anemic retinopathy (n=1) and VZV retinitis (n=1). In two of these patients (one with selective cone dystrophy, the other with VZV retinitis) antigen specific T cells against MHC-II restricted GUCY2D epitopes could be detected 24 and 40 months after HCT. DNA sequencing did not reveal a SNP indicating recognition of self-antigens. In 6/22 patients without PS symptoms, retina-specific T cells could be detected, here directed against MHC-II restricted epitopes derived from GUCA1A (n=3), GUCA1B (n=3) and GUCY2D (n=3) between 4 and 14 months after HCT. After stimulation with the variant peptide, no T cell reactivity occurred, confirming that the observed responses were sequence specific. T cell responses tended to increase over time but could disappear at certain time points. Again, no SNP could be observed. Hence, T cell reactivity was directed against self-epitopes. Transplantation of retina-antigen specific cells and cross-reactivity against naturally occurring epitopes were excluded since no reactivity could be detected in donor samples and healthy individuals. In in vitro priming experiments, 36/55 of MHC-I restricted peptides could be confirmed as T cell epitopes.
Thus, GvHD manifestations of the retina can be detected in patients after allogeneic HCT and can be mediated by antigen-specific T cells. Development of PS GvHD may be triggered by viral infections and should be considered in case of atypical ophthalmologic findings. The antigens recognized hereby can be self-antigens and do not need to be based on genetic differences between donor and recipient. In summary, recognition of self-antigens by allogeneic T cells represents a novel pathomechanism of graft-host-interaction in patients undergoing allogeneic HCT.
No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.