We have recently established that increased chromosomal instability (CIN) signature is linked to drug resistance and poor outcome in multiple myeloma (MM) and other cancers. Thyroid Hormone Receptor Interactor 13 (Trip13), one of the 56 drug-resistant genes, plays a key role in chromosomal recombination and structure development during meiosis and has been reported to be increased in some malignancies including lung cancer, prostate cancer and breast cancer. In this study, we investigated how important Trip13 is in myelomagenesis and progression.
Gene expression profiling (GEP) was analyzed on plasma cells from 22 healthy donors, 44 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), 351 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, and 9 human myeloma cell lines, as well as on 36 sequential samples at diagnosis, pre-1st, pre-2nd and post-2nd autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Over-expression and knock-down experiments of Trip13 were performed on myeloma cell lines by lentivirus transfection. Cell viability was assessed by trypan exclusion assay. Western blots were used to detect the expression of Trip13, P31 comet, caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP, and checkpoint related proteins MAD2 and CDC20 in Trip13 overexpressed or Trip13 shRNA-transfected myeloma cells.
Sequential GEP samples showed that Trip13 expression increased in 8 of 9 patients after chemotherapy and ASCT compared to the samples at diagnosis strongly suggesting that increased Trip13 is associated with drug resistance. Trip13 was already significantly increased in MGUS patients, newly diagnosed MM patients and MM cell lines compared with normal plasma cells. Furthermore, Trip13 was significantly higher in high-risk MMs than in low-risk MMs and increased Trip13 was linked to an inferior event-free survival (EFS) (p<0.01) and overall survival (OS) (p<0.01) in 351 newly diagnosed MMs. In contrast, the Trip13-interacting gene P31 comet was down-regulated in high-risk MMs and high expression of P31 was associated with good outcome. Interestingly, patients with high Trip13 and low P31 comet have the worst outcome compared to patients with only one of these, suggesting the interaction of Trip 13 and p31 has a synergistic effect on MM progression. Transfection of Trip13 into ARP1 and OCI-My5 cells significantly increased cell proliferation, while knock-down Trip13 in OCI-My5, H929, RPMI8226 cells inhibited cell growth and induced MM cell apoptosis with increases of cleaved caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP. Mechanistic studies showed that Trip13 over-expression decreased P31comet and MAD2 expression by western blotting, but increased CDC20.
The association of increased Trip13 and decreased p31 is a good biomarker for MM drug resistance and poor prognosis. Our results also show Trip13 and P31 comet could be potential targets to overcome drug resistance in MM.
No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.