The use of soluble cardiac biomarkers such as NT-proBNP and troponin has revolutionized prognostication for patients with AL amyloidosis and led to their use in the Mayo 2004 and 2012 staging systems. Novel soluble markers with different phenotypic targets may further improve this approach. Soluble ST2 (sST2), which is the circulating form of the IL-33 receptor, has been shown to be a marker of cardiac remodelling and fibrosis, is predictive of mortality in patients with congestive heart failure, and is predictive of risk of GVHD and GVHD mortality.

Samples of blood of patients with AL amyloidosis collected and frozen at -20C under a biobank IRB protocol were retrieved and sST2 measured. Patients were eligible for present study if they had a research sample collected within 90 days of their AL amyloidosis diagnosis. We have validated that values do not change significantly with storage at -20C over a 90 day period. Concentrations of sST2 were determined using a novel high-sensitivity sandwich immunoassay (Presagew ST2; Critical Diagnostics, San Diego, CA, USA). The sST2 assay had within-run and total coefficients of variation of <7.5% and 13.0% across its measurement range. Samples from 273 consecutive patients meeting diagnostic criteria for AL amyloidosis seen at our institution from 1/9/2010 to 12/22/2011 were evaluated. Median age was 63. 58% were male. One hundred and thirty have died over 33.9 months. Correlation between sST2 and the other biomarkers was modest with correlation coefficients of 0.48 and 0.20 for NT-proBNP and Troponin T, respectively. Patients with sST2 above and below the median of 27.2 ng/mL (6.3-596) had significant differences in 2 year overall survival: 71.2% to 39% (figure). In multivariate modeling sST2’s prognostic value was independent of the Mayo 2004 and the Mayo 2012 cardiac biomarker staging systems, the latter of which also includes prognostic information relating to plasma cell burden. In these multivariate models, sST2 median had a RR of 2.4, (95%CI 1.6, 3.6 p<0.001) with the Mayo 2004 Staging system (RR of 2.9, 95%CI 2.1, 4.1p<0.001); and sST2 median had a RR of 2.2 (95%CI 1.5, 3.4, p<0.001) with the Mayo 2012 staging system (RR 1.9, 95%CI 1.6, 2.3, p<0.001).

A larger cohort including patients with longer follow up will be presented at the meeting as will gender specific cut off values and a comparison of our values with those previously used to prognosticate in patients with heart failure. sST2 appears to be a novel powerful prognostic factor for patients with AL amyloidosis. Because sST2 functions as a decoy receptor, which neutralizes the benefits of IL-33, it may play a role in the deleterious phenotype seen in patients with AL, i.e. myocardial hypertrophy and reduction of contractility.


Saenger:Critical Diagnostics : Research Funding; Roche: Research Funding. Jaffe:Critical Diagnostics: Consultancy, Research Funding; Roche: Consultancy.

Author notes


Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.