Acquired factor X (FX) deficiency is associated with immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis and may be accompanied by hemorrhage. There are limited data on the effects of autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) on FX deficiency. We reviewed hemorrhagic complications and the effect of high dose melphalan (HDM) and ASCT on FX levels in AL amyloidosis patients with FX deficiency.


We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with AL amyloid with FX levels below 60%, not on chronic anti-coagulation who underwent HDM/ASCT at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN between 1995 and 2011.


Forty-one of 358 patients (11%) met our study criteria. Median pre-ASCT FX was 45% (range: 2%, 59%). The most common bleeding complication was central line associated n=15 (37%) followed by gastrointestinal n=10 (24%) and genitourinary n=9 (22%). The most frequent and severe bleeding complications occurred in patients with FX levels less than 10%. Four patients required emergent splenectomy owing to splenic rupture; one of these patients died from hemorrhagic shock. Periprocedural prophylaxis included activated recombinant Factor VII (rFVIIa) infusions, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) infusions and platelet transfusions. rFVIIa was efficacious in controlling bleeding during splenectomy (n=5) and, in conjunction with arterial embolization, for retroperitoneal bleed (n=1). Elective splenectomy for FX deficiency (n=1) resulted in only transient improvement in FX level.

No relationship between the degree of pre-ASCT FX deficiency and other laboratory values (alkaline phosphatase, AST, total bilirubin, serum albumin, total serum protein, serum creatinine, total urine protein, beta2 microglobulin, troponin T) was found.

Post-ASCT FX levels were determined in seventeen patients. In four of these patients, post-ASCT FX levels were determined in the acute/subacute phase of ASCT before steady state FX levels could be achieved; the median change in FX for these patients was -6.5% (range: -19%, 3%). In the remaining thirteen patients, who were between 99 and 1920 days from ASCT, FX improved by median 26% (range: -15%, 92%). Overall post-ASCT FX increased in twelve of thirteen (92%) patients. The improvement in FX correlated with improvement in the degree of proteinuria (p = 0.04) and showed a trend towards significant correlation with improvement in serum alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.06).


Hemorrhagic complications are most frequent and severe for FX levels below 10%. rFVIIa infusions, FFP and platelets were effective prophylactic agents. In the single patient who underwent elective splenectomy, a transient improvement in FX level was seen. Splenectomy was otherwise reserved for patients with splenic rupture/hematoma. Post-ASCT FX levels increased in twelve (92.3%) of the remaining thirteen patients; five of the patients (38.5%) were no longer FX deficient after ASCT. The degree of improvement in FX levels was correlated with improvement in markers of renal or hepatic involvement by amyloid.


Kumar:Celgene: Consultancy, Research Funding; Millennium: Consultancy, Research Funding; Onyx: Consultancy, Research Funding.

Author notes


Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.