Lintuzumab, a humanized anti-CD33 antibody, targets myeloid leukemia cells and has modest activity against AML. To increase the antibody’s potency yet avoid nonspecific cytotoxicity seen with β-emitting isotopes, the isotope generator 225Ac (t½=10 days), which yields 4 α-particles, was conjugated to lintuzumab. A phase I trial demonstrated that 225Ac-lintuzumab is safe at doses ≤ 3 μCi/kg and has anti-leukemic activity across all dose levels studied (Jurcic et al. ASH, 2011). We are conducting a multicenter, phase I dose escalation trial to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), toxicity, and biological activity of fractionated-dose 225Ac-lintuzumab in combination with LDAC.
Patients ≥ 60 yrs who had untreated AML with poor-prognostic factors, such as an antecedent hematologic disorder (AHD), unfavorable cytogenetic or molecular abnormalities, and significant comorbidities, were eligible. Patients received LDAC 20 mg bid for 10 days every 4-6 weeks. During cycle 1, beginning 4-7 days after LDAC, two doses of 225Ac-lintuzumab were given approximately one week apart.
Seven patients (median age, 76 yrs; range, 72-80 yrs) were treated, all of whom had AHDs. Five (71%) had intermediate-risk cytogenetics, and two (29%) had unfavorable cytogenetics. The median CD33 expression was 76% (range, 69-95%). Prior therapy for myelodysplastic syndrome included hypomethylating agents (n=4) and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (n=1). Patients received 225Ac-lintuzumab at doses of 0.5 (n=3) or 1 (n=4) μCi/kg/fraction, two fractions per patient (total administered activity, 68-199 μCi). Dose-limiting toxicity was seen in one patient receiving 1 μCi/kg/fraction who had grade 4 thrombocytopenia in the setting of an aplastic bone marrow that persisted > 6 wks after completing the second fraction of 225Ac-lintuzumab. Other toxicities included grade 3 febrile neutropenia (n=5), bacteremia (n=1), pneumonia (n=1), cellulitis (n=1), transient increase in creatinine (n=1), and generalized weakness (n=1). Bone marrow blast reductions were seen in 4 of 6 evaluable patients (67%) after cycle 1 (mean blast reduction, 58%; range, 34-100%). No CRs, however, were observed. The median number of cycles administered was 2 (range, 1-4), and the median time to progression was 2.5 months (range, 2-7+ months).
Fractionated-dose 225Ac-linutuzmab in combination with LDAC is feasible, safe, and has anti-leukemic activity. Accrual continues to define the MTD, with planned dose levels up to 2 μCi/kg/fraction. Additional patients will be treated at the MTD in the phase II portion of this trial to determine response rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival.
Jurcic:Actinium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: Membership on an entity’s Board of Directors or advisory committees. Ravandi:Actinium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: Research Funding. Pagel:Actinium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: Equity Ownership, Membership on an entity’s Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding. Park:Actinium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: Research Funding. Douer:Actinium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: Research Funding. Estey:Actinium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: Membership on an entity’s Board of Directors or advisory committees. Cicic:Actinium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: Employment, Equity Ownership. Scheinberg:Actinium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: Ac-225-Lintuzumab, Ac-225-Lintuzumab Patents & Royalties, Equity Ownership, Membership on an entity’s Board of Directors or advisory committees.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.