Abstract

Abstract 3781

Background:

CML is characterized by the reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 [t(9;22)(q34;q11.2)], also known as the Philadelphia chromosome. This results in the formation of the BCR-ABL fusion gene, which is translated to a protein with increased tyrosine kinase activity. The breakpoint in the BCR gene can occur in different sites, most commonly between exons 13 and 15 which fuse to exon 2 of the ABL gene creating the b2a2 and b3a2 junctions. Previous studies have reported a better outcome for patients (pts) having a b2a2 transcript when treated with imatinib. To our knowledge there are no published reports analyzing the outcome of pts treated with a 2ndgeneration TKI as initial therapy for CML according to the fusion transcript. We analyzed the significance of these variations among pts with CML in chronic phase (CP) enrolled in 2 parallel trials of dasatinib and nilotinib as initial therapy.

Patients and Methods:

A total of 204 pts with CML in CP, treated at our institution between 2005 and 2012 with nilotinib or dasatinib as frontline therapy were included in this analysis. Among them 88 (43%) had the b2a2 transcript (median age of 47 years; range 18–80) at the start of therapy, 74 (36%) showed the b3a2 variant (median age of 47; range 17–82 years), and 42 (21%) presented both (median age 53; range 27–81). One patient had a b3a3 transcript and 2 pts showed an e1a2 transcript. Forty-two (48%) of those with b2a2 were treated with dasatinib and 46 (52%) with nilotinib; of the pts with b3a2 34 (46%) were treated with dasatinib and 40 (54%) with nilotinib, in the group of pts with both transcripts 24 (57%) received dasatinib 24, and 18 (43%) of them nilotinib (Table 1).

Results:

The Sokal risk group for those with the b2a2 transcript was high in 10%, intermediate in 29%, and low in 61%. For pts with b3a2 the risk classification was 5%, 25, and 70%, respectively. The group with both transcripts had 10%, 31% and 69%, respectively. Significant difference was observed in the time of molecular response and overall outcome between pts with b2a2 and those with b3a2 (CCyR 91% vs. 96%; MMR 75% vs. 91%, respectively). The 3-year probability of overall survival (OS) was 100% for both groups. The 3-year probability of event-free survival (EFS) was 93% and 99%, and the transformation-free survival (TFS) 99% and 98% for the b2a2 and the b3a2 group respectively (Table 2). On the 12 mo. follow-up one of the pts with e1a2 transcript achieved CCyR (treated with nilotinib), and the second patient (pt) major cytogenetic response (receiving dasatinib). The pt presenting with b3a3 was treated with dasatinib and achieved MMR by 3 mo. and CCyR at the 12 months follow-up.

Conclusions:

Although all pts whether they express b3a2 or b2a2 at diagnosis, have an excellent overall survival, those with b3a2 have a significantly higher rate of molecular responses and a trend for better EFS. These results mirror what we have previously reported for pts treated with imatinib as initial therapy. The biologic characteristics for this difference warrant further investigation.

Table 1.

Treatment distribution in analyzed groups

TranscriptDasatinibNilotinib
b2a2 42 (48%) 46 (52%) 
b3a2 34 (46%) 40 (54%) 
b2a2 and b3a2 24 (57%) 18 (43%) 
TranscriptDasatinibNilotinib
b2a2 42 (48%) 46 (52%) 
b3a2 34 (46%) 40 (54%) 
b2a2 and b3a2 24 (57%) 18 (43%) 
Table 2.

Results of patients with variant BCR-ABL transcripts treated with 2ndgeneration TKIs

b2a2b3a2b2a2+b3a2
Overall CCyR 90.4% 95.7% 95.1% 
Overall MMR 75% 91.5% 95% 
12 mo. CCyR 93.8% 100% 100% 
12 mo. MR 66.7% 98.1 84.7% 
3 years O.S. 100% 100% 94% 
3 years EFS 93% 99% 98% 
3 years TFS 99% 98% 100% 
b2a2b3a2b2a2+b3a2
Overall CCyR 90.4% 95.7% 95.1% 
Overall MMR 75% 91.5% 95% 
12 mo. CCyR 93.8% 100% 100% 
12 mo. MR 66.7% 98.1 84.7% 
3 years O.S. 100% 100% 94% 
3 years EFS 93% 99% 98% 
3 years TFS 99% 98% 100% 
Disclosures:

Kantarjian:Novartis: Research Funding; Bristol Myers Squibb: Research Funding; Ariad: Research Funding; Pfizer: Research Funding. Jabbour:Bristol Myers Squibb: Honoraria; Pfizer: Honoraria; Novartis: Honoraria. Cortes:Novartis: Consultancy, Research Funding; Bristol Myers Squibb: Consultancy, Research Funding; Pfizer: Consultancy, Research Funding; Ariad: Consultancy, Research Funding.

Author notes

*

Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.