Abstract

Abstract 321

Background:

Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the presence of monoclonal protein (M-protein) in serum and/or urine, clonal plasma cell accumulation in bone marrow (BM), and related organ or tissue impairment. MM patients are monitored during therapy and posttherapy using immunoglobulin, M-protein and free light chain assays. Assessing pathological myeloma cells using flow cytometry and RT-PCR has been shown to have superior prognostic value. However, the sensitivity of these techniques has generally limited their use to assessment of BM. In order to determine whether myeloma minimal residual disease could be detected in peripheral blood (PB), we assessed a cohort of MM patients using a sequencing based platform, LymphoSIGHT, with a sensitivity of 1 cancer cell per million leukocytes.

Methods:

We obtained from 4 sources (UCSF, NYU, Washington Univ, commercial source) pairs of BM and PB samples from 60 MM patients at different points of disease. BM samples were used to identify the clonal MM sequence and detection of that sequence in the PB was assessed. For some patients BM/PB sample pairs were obtained from >1 time point resulting in a total of 78 pairs. In addition blood and bone marrow plasma samples were available for 44 and 6 patients, respectively, to assess presence of the myeloma clonotype in cell free DNA. Altogether there were 206 samples. BM samples were either available as BM mononuclear cells (BMMC) or bead enriched CD138+ cells. Using universal primer sets, we amplified IgH@ variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) gene segments from genomic DNA and/or RNA samples, the incomplete IgH rearrangement (DJ), and IgK from genomic DNA. Amplified products were sequenced to obtain >1 million reads and analyzed using standardized algorithms for clonotype determination. Myeloma-specific IgH, IgK, and DJ clonotypes were identified for each patient based on their high frequency in BM samples. The presence of the myeloma clonotype was then assessed in all PBMC (DNA and RNA), BM plasma (DNA), and PB plasma (DNA) samples using the same IgH and in some samples using the IgK sequencing assays. A quantitative and standardized measure of clone level among all leukocytes in each PB or BM sample was determined using internal reference DNA. Here we describe data on 46/60 patients; data from all 60 patients will be presented.

Results:

In BM samples, we detected the myeloma clonal rearrangement of at least one receptor (“calibrating receptor”) in 34/46 (74%) of MM patients (Table 1). The calibration rate varied by receptor, with 30/46 (65%) patients calibrating with IgH, 14/43 (33%) with IgH DJ, and 22/43 (51%) with IgK (Table 1). Identification of myeloma-specific clonal rearrangement is based on presence at high frequency and may not occur in samples from patients with low disease load (e.g., post-treatment). Of the 12 non-calibrating patients, only 3 had high disease load. The myeloma clonotype that was identified in the BM was also detected in PBMC in 22/30 (73%) and 28/30 (93%) patients with the DNA and RNA IgH analysis, respectively (Table 2). IgK DNA analysis showed the presence of the myeloma clonotype in 9/10 PBMC samples, all of which were concordant with IgH results. The myeloma clonotype that was identified in the BM was also detected in the cell-free BM and PB samples in 5/5 and 7/11 patients, respectively, using the IgH DNA assay. The evaluation of blood plasma and PBMC were at times complementary in detecting the myeloma.

Conclusions:

Results from the application of a high-throughput sequencing method for detection of myeloma-specific clonotypes in 46 MM patients are shown. A clonal rearrangement was detected in 74% of MM BM samples. Importantly, 93% of peripheral blood samples from 30 patients showed evidence of circulating myeloma in PBMC. Analysis of BM and PB samples from 14 additional MM patients as well as association of the level of myeloma in PBMC and BM with clinical measures is ongoing.

Table 1.

Calibration rates for IgH and IgK receptors in MM patients.

Sample sourceIgH (complete)IgKIgH (incomplete)Any receptor
UCSF 8/12 6/12 3/12 9/12 
NYU 15/21 13/21 10/21 17/21 
Commercial source 7/13 3/10 1/10 8/13 
Total 30/46 22/43 14/43 34/46 
Sample sourceIgH (complete)IgKIgH (incomplete)Any receptor
UCSF 8/12 6/12 3/12 9/12 
NYU 15/21 13/21 10/21 17/21 
Commercial source 7/13 3/10 1/10 8/13 
Total 30/46 22/43 14/43 34/46 
Table 2.

Detection of circulating myeloma material in MM patients.

Sample sourceIgH clone present in blood DNAIgH clone present in blood RNAIgK clone present in blood DNA
UCSF 4/8 7/8 2/3 
NYU 13/15 15/15 7/7 
Commercial source 5/7 6/7 N/A 
Total 22/30 28/30 9/10 
Sample sourceIgH clone present in blood DNAIgH clone present in blood RNAIgK clone present in blood DNA
UCSF 4/8 7/8 2/3 
NYU 13/15 15/15 7/7 
Commercial source 5/7 6/7 N/A 
Total 22/30 28/30 9/10 
Disclosures:

Faham:Sequenta, Inc.: Employment, Equity Ownership, Research Funding. Klinger:Sequenta, Inc.: Employment, Equity Ownership, Research Funding.

Author notes

*

Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.