Myelofibrosis (MF), both primary myelofibrosis (PMF) and post essential thrombocytosis/polycythemia vera myelofibrosis (post ET/PV-MF), are chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms characterized by a progressive clinical course that leads to shortened survival. The heterogeneous nature of MF lends itself to a variable clinical course that commonly includes hepatosplenomegaly, constitutional symptoms, and progressive cytopenias. Medical therapy for myelofibrosis has been effective in palliation of common symptoms related to anemia, splenomegaly but allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) remains the only potentially curative therapeutic modality. The timing of ASCT, choice of conditioning regimen, patient selection and the impact of co-morbidities are critical to optimal use of this modality. We have retrospectively analyzed our experience for patients undergoing ASCT for primary and post ET/PV myelofibrosis at Mayo Clinic across all 3 sites: Scottsdale Arizona; Rochester, Minnesota; and Jacksonville, Florida.
We conducted a retrospective review of all patients from 1992 to 2012 with PMF or post ET/PV-MF who underwent an ASCT at Mayo Clinic. This retrospective review included a waiver of informed consent and was approved by the Mayo Clinic Institutional Review Board. Patients that transformed to the MPN blast phase and individuals who underwent a second transplant for either relapse or graft failure were also included. Overall survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier. Associations between prognostic factors and overall survival were assessed using Cox regression.
Forty-eight patients (29 male) with a median age of 57 yrs (range 31–73) underwent ASCT. DIPSS-plus risk score was low in 2, intermediate 1 in 2, intermediate 2 in 9 and high in 35 patients. Disease type was PMF in 24, PV-MF in 10, ET-MF in 10, and MPN/MDS overlap in 4 pts. Eight patients evolved to the MPN-blast phase prior to transplant. JAK-2 mutation was positive in 27 patients and negative in 12 patients with JAK-2 status unknown in 9 patients. The median time from PV/ET to MF was 136 months (83–189 months) and from MF diagnosis to transplant was 59 months (3–144 months). All but 2 patients were red cell transfusion dependent prior to transplant (96%). Eight patients underwent splenectomy prior to transplant.
Patients who underwent ASCT received either myeloablative (MA, 13 pts) or reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC, 35 pts) regimen. The graft was from an unrelated donor in 22 pts and related donor in 26 pts with 44 being matched and 4 being mismatched. The myeloablative regimens included Bu/Cy, TBI/Cy, and Bu/Flu. The RIC regimens included flu/mel, Bu/Flu, FBM, and TBI/Flu. GVHD prophylaxis was with tacrolimus/MTX, CSA/MTX, and tacrolimus/MMF. Nineteen patients received ATG. Infectious disease prophylaxis, CMV monitoring, and additional supportive care measures were according to institutional guidelines. A majority of patients received peripheral blood stem cells with only 1 patient receiving bone marrow as the source of stem cells.
The median time to neutrophil engraftment was 17.2 days. Two patients received a second transplant for relapsed disease. The incidence of graft failure was 10%. Graft versus host disease both acute and chronic occurred in 33 patients and 15 patients respectively. Day 100 overall survival was 92% and 2 year survival was 62% (95% CI 45–75%). There were no statistically significant associations between individual prognostic factors (DIPSS-plus classification, age, and HLA match) and survival.
The Mayo Clinic national experience of ASCT for MF across our geographically diverse Cancer Center is encouraging. Our centers have transplanted 48 patients over the past 10 years with very favorable outcomes. Our results from a multi center practice are consistent with regards to survival, graft versus host disease, and types of transplants being performed compared to currently available published data from large single location transplant centers. This data helps confirm the prevailing knowledge that ASCT is a useful treatment.
Mesa:Incyte: Research Funding; Lilly: Research Funding; Sanofi: Research Funding; NS Pharma: Research Funding; YM Bioscience: Research Funding.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.