CXCR5 [chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 5; also known as Burkitt lymphoma receptor 1 (BCR1)] is expressed on mature B-cells, subsets of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, and skin-derived migratory dendritic cells. CXCL13 is the ligand for CXCR5, and together they are involved in guiding B-cells into the B-cell zones of secondary lymphoid organs as well as T-cell migration. CXCR5 is also expressed in malignant cells in NHL patients. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CXCR5 have not been extensively studied, although two studies reported that SNPs from this chromosome 11 gene were associated with risk of primary biliary cirrhosis in a European population and with risk of NHL in an Asian population. This study evaluated the role of common germline genetic variation in the risk and prognosis of the common NHL subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) and peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL).
Ten SNPs in CXCR5 were genotyped using a clinic-based study of 2694 NHL cases (including 586 DLBCL, 588 FL, 137 MCL, 230 MZL, and 158 PTCL) and 1521 controls enrolled from 2002–2009 in the Molecular Epidemiology Resource of the University of Iowa/Mayo Clinic Lymphoma SPORE. Clinical data were abstracted for all NHL patients and all were prospectively followed for disease progression, retreatment, transformation and death. SNPs were selected from HapMap using a standard tagging approach (r2≥0.80 and minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥0.05) and included SNPs 5kb upstream and downstream from the gene. Genotyping was conducted using a custom Illumina iSelect panel. All SNPs were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the control group. The most prevalent homozygous genotype was used as the reference group, and each SNP was modeled as having a log-additive effect in the regression model. For risk of NHL, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for age and gender. For prognosis, hazard ratios (HR) were calculated for both event-free (EFS) and overall (OS) survival using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusting for age, treatment type, and IPI (DLBCL, PTCL), FLIPI (FL), or MIPI (MCL). To determine risk of FL transformation to DLBCL, a competing risk Cox model was used. A p<0.05 was declared as statistically significant.
Of the 10 CXCR5 tag SNPs in our study, 5 were associated with risk of NHL, with rs1790192 (MAF=0.39 among controls) having the strongest association (OR=1.19, 95%CI 1.08–1.30; p=0.0003). This SNP was strongly associated with FL (OR=1.44, 95%CI 1.25–1.66; p=3.1×10−7), and was also associated with DLBCL (OR=1.16, 95%CI 1.01–1.33; p=0.038) and PTCL (OR=1.29, 95%CI 1.02–1.64; p=0.037) but not MCL or MZL. For FL, none of the SNPs were associated with EFS or OS, although rs1790192 was associated with better outcome among FL patients that were observed (HR=0.64; 95%CI 0.47–0.87; p=0.0039). For DLBCL, none of the SNPs were associated with EFS, while three SNPs were associated with OS: rs523604 (HR=0.79; 95%CI 0.64–0.97; p=0.028), rs12363277 (HR=0.57; 95%CI 0.33–0.99; p=0.046), and rs3922 (HR=0.79; 95%CI 0.65–0.97; p=0.027). The latter SNP was also associated with risk of transformation from FL to DLBCL (HR=0.61; 95%CI 0.40–0.91; p=0.016). For MCL, MZL and PTCL, none of the SNPs were associated with either EFS or OS.
Several germline CXCR5 polymorphisms were associated with NHL risk, particularly rs1790192 with risk of FL as well as DLBCL and PTCL. CXCR5 SNPs did not appear to be important in prognosis for most NHL subtypes, although rs1790192 was associated with a better outcome in untreated FL and rs3922 was associated with OS in DLBCL patients and with risk of FL transformation. These results provide additional evidence for a role of host genetic variation in CXCR5 in lymphomagenesis, mainly in risk of disease development, although there may also be a role for CXCR5 in FL and DLBCL prognosis. Replications of these findings in additional studies are needed.
Ansell:Seattle Genetics, Inc.: Research Funding.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.