Mutations of several genes believed to be important in the methylation apparatus of the cell have been recently described in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but their presence has not been correlated with a worse or better outcome using hypomethylating agents.
We evaluated the association of mutations in IDH1, IDH2, DNMT3A, and EZH2 with the outcome [complete response (CR) rate, event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS)] among patients older than 60 with AML (≥ 20% blasts) treated with hypomethylating agents as their first line of treatment. TET2 mutations were not evaluated due to lack of available material.
Among the 68 patients (median age 72 years; range, 60 – 83) with available data, 11 patients (16%) had IDH1 or IDH2 mutations (mutually exclusive) and 10 patients (15%) had DNMT3A mutations with 5 patients (7%) having both IDH and DNMT3A mutations. Cytogenetics was diploid in 19 (28%), abnormal chromosome 5/7 and/or complex in 27 (40%), trisomy 8 in 5 (7%), miscellaneous in 14 (21%), and insufficient in 3 (4%). Presence of IDH mutations was associated with a diploid karyotype and the presence of NPM1 mutations (p=.03 and p=.02, respectively) but not with FLT3- ITD or RAS mutations (present in 7 and 4 patients, respectively). DNMT3A mutations were not associated with any specific karyotype or with the presence of NPM1, FLT3-ITD, or RAS mutations. None of the 68 patients had EZH2 mutations. All patients were treated with hypomethylating agents [decitabine in 39 (57%) and 5-azacytidine in 29 (43%)] with 42 patients (62%) receiving concomitant histone deacetylase inhibitor therapy (SAHA or valproic acid). Overall, 17 patients (25%) achieved CR; the presence of IDH or DNMT3A mutations or both was not associated with achievement of CR. With a median duration of follow-up of 60 months, the median EFS is 3.3 months (range, 0.25 – 3.75 months) and the median overall survival is 6 months (range, 0.25 – 90.5 months). Presence of IDH mutations was not associated with an impact on EFS (p=.29) or OS (p=.14). Similarly, DNMT3A mutations were not associated with an effect on EFS (p=.21) or OS (p=.58). The presence of both IDH and DNMT3A mutations was also not associated with a better or worse response, EFS, or OS as compared with patients with neither mutation.
We were not able to detect an association between presence of IDH1/2 and DNMT3A mutations and outcome in this elderly population of patients with AML treated with epigenetic modulators.
Ravandi:Johnson and Johnson: Honoraria; Celgene: Research Funding. Off Label Use: Use of decitabine, 5-azacytidine, SAHA, and valproic acid in the treatment of older patients with AML. Garcia-Manero:Celgene: Research Funding. Cortes:Celgene: Research Funding; Eisai: Research Funding.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.