Systemic light chain amyloidosis (AL amyloidosis) is a condition where clonal plasma cells produce misfolded insoluble immunoglobulin light chains that deposit in various organs causing progressive organ dysfunction. Chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) when eligible is the standard treatment options for patients with AL amyloidosis. There are several studies who report long term outcomes of patient post ASCT. However, there is a paucity of literature describing the outcomes of patients who have received ASCT but have relapsed. We performed a retrospective study to assess the outcomes and treatment regimens employed following relapse after ASCT. Between 1996 and 2009, 410 patients received ASCT at the Mayo Clinic as first line therapy. Of those 410 patients 42 patients died within 3 months of transplant, 64 patients died without documented relapse, 158 patients were alive without documented progression, and 146 patients had documented progression. Those 146 patients are the subject of our study. The median time to hematologic relapse was 2 years (range: 0.2–15.5 years). At relapse, 59 patients were treated with IMiD based therapy, 36 with alkylator based therapy, 24 with bortezomib, 15 with steroids, and 5 with second ASCT. The respective hematologic response rates were 58%, 33%, 50%, 53%, and 60%. The remaining six patients were not evaluable for response for one other following reasons: organ transplants; no further therapy; inevaluable disease. With a median post relapse follow up of 3.6 years, the median overall survival (OS) from the first post ASCT relapse was 4.6 years. The median post transplant follow up was 6.1 years, the median OS for these patients was 7.3 years from the time of transplant. These data provide novel information about outcomes after SCT relapse, which should be useful not only for patients and doctors but also for investigators designing studies for salvage therapies post-transplant.
No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.