Despite recent advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), patients with high-risk chromosomal changes such as del13q, t(4;14) or del17p revealed significantly shorter survival. In addition, bone disease markedly reduces quality of life of the patients with MM. To overcome these problems, we have designed and screened synthetic phthalimides which significantly inhibited the growth of MM cell lines with high-risk chromosomal abnormalities. The purposes of this study are to explore novel drugs which possess anti-tumor activity against high-risk MM cells and to examine the anti-osteoclastogenic activity and to isolate directly binding molecules.
Thirty synthetic phthalimides were screened for anti-proliferative effect on KMS34 cells with t(4;14) and deletion of chromosome 17. A phthalimide derivative, 2-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)- 5-amino- 1H-isoindole- 1,3- dione (TC11) significantly inhibited growth of KMS34 cells as well as other MM cells lines with high-risk chromosomal abnormalities (IC50 to KMS34 cells= 4μM). TC11 increased annexin V fraction and induced apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner. In vivo anti-myeloma activity was evaluated using KMS34-bearing lcr/SCID mice by intraperitoneal injection of TC11. Twenty mg/kg of TC11 significantly inhibited growth of TC11-derived tumor cells, and apoptosis of MM cells was observed by histopathological examination. In order to evaluate hematological toxicity of TC11, growth of colony-forming cells was examined. In the presence of 5μM of TC11, formation of CFCs was not suppressed, suggesting low hematopoietic toxicity. In pharmacokinetic study using lcr/SCID mice, the plasma concentrations of TC11 was examined; Cmax=18.1μM, Tmax=1.5hr, T1/2 =4.5hr when 100mg/kg of TC11 was injected, and Cmax=2.1μM Tmax=1.0hr, T1/2 =4.5hr when 20mg/kg was injected. In order to examine efficacy to bone disease, anti-osteoclastogenic activity was examined by adding TC11 to M-CSF/RANK ligand-induced osteoclastogenic culture of mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells. The number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated osteoclasts was reduced in the presence of 1μM of TC11. It was also found that TC11 inhibited bone resorption by pit assay. We also tried to isolate directly binding proteins to TC11 by our unique in vitro selection system using mRNA display, in vitro virus (IVV) method. We identified nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) as a TC11-binding molecule. Knockdown assay introducing siRNA for NPM1 into HeLa cells induced emergence of the cells with multipolar spindles, suggesting centrosomal disruption during cell division. Since NPM1 gene localizes at chromosome 5q, anti-MDS effect of TC11 was also examined. TC11 also inhibited growth of MDS-L cells (IC50=7μM).
A novel phthalimide derivative, TC11, has anti-MM activity in vivo and is a potentially effective drug for high-risk MM with bone lesions. TC11 directly binds to NPM1 and induces apoptosis of MM and MDS cells with low toxicity to normal hematopoiesis.
No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.