High levels of 2-HG in serum were found among AML cases with IDH1/IDH2 mutations. However, the impact of 2-HG levels on biological characteristics and clinical outcomes has not been systematically evaluated in a large cohort of AML patients.
Serum 2-HG levels in 699 patients with hematologic malignancies, including 405 AML patients, were measured by GC-TOFMS. Clinical prognostic power of 2-HG and genetic risk factors associated with 2-HG were also evaluated in AML patients.
Among all patients with hematopoietic malignancies investigated, high serum 2-HG levels were observed only in AML group. 64 out of 405 (15.8%) AML patients displayed aberrantly higher levels (7.14±2.11μg/ml) of 2-HG. Compared to cases with normal 2-HG (3.65±1.02μg/ml), these patients showed a higher prevalence in AML-M0/M1 subtypes, a closer correlation with mutated IDH1/2 genes, a distinct gene expression profile and an aberrant DNA methylation status in bone marrow blasts. Additionally, the patients with high 2-HG were associated with higher serum levels of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and glutamate, suggesting presence of impaired metabolic pathway involved in the biosynthesis of 2-HG. Univariate and multivariate analyses indicate that high level of 2-HG is among the most significant negative indicators for complete remission (CR) rate, overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) either in all AML cases or in cases with cytogenetically normal AML (CN-AML).
Serum 2-HG is an independent prognostic marker in AML. Patients with high 2-HG had significantly higher frequency of IDH1/IDH2 gene mutations and unfavorable prognosis compared to those with normal 2-HG.
No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
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