A total of 194 cases of leukemia or lymphoma with coexistent primary malignant disease was found reported in the literature. To this we have added 120 new cases from the files of the Mayo Clinic in which the diagnosis was made in the 10 years from 1944 through 1953.

The following observations were made:

1. The presence of leukemia or lymphoma does not seem to predispose to the development of any other specific type of primary malignancy.

2. The incidence of another primary malignant lesion in patients with leukemia or lymphoma is probably comparable to, and perhaps exceeds, that in any segment of the general population of similar age.

3. The coexistence of Kaposi’s sarcoma and leukemia or lymphoma in the same patient probably represents a morphologic variation of the same basic malignant disease of the reticuloendothelial system.

4. Any patient with leukemia or lymphoma who presents signs or symptoms of a focal malignant lesion should be regarded as having another primary lesion until proved otherwise on pathologic examination.

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