The marrow microenvironment enhances both tumor growth and bone destruction in multiple myeloma (MM) through MM cell-induced activation of multiple signaling pathways in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) by TNFα. We reported that sequestosome-1 (p62) acts as a signaling hub for NF-kB, MAPK and PI3K activation in BMSC of MM patients and enhances MM growth and osteoclast (OCL) formation. p62 is composed of 5 domains that are involved in protein–protein interactions required for formation of these signaling complexes, but which domain of p62 mediates increase MM growth and OCL formation is unclear. Therefore, deletion constructs of p62 that lacked each of the 5 domains (PB1, ZZ, p38, TBS or UBA) were transfected into a p62−/− stromal cell line. We found that the ZZ domains mediated BMSC enhancement of MM cell growth, IL-6 production, VCAM-1 expression and OCL formation. Using virtual modeling of the ZZ domain, we identified 6 candidate p62-ZZ inhibitory molecules and tested them for their capacity to block enhanced MM cell growth, OCL formation, IL-6 production, and VCAM-1 expression on BMSC induced by TNFα.
When MM1.S, RPMI8266, ANBL6 MM cell-lines or CD138+ primary MM cells were cultured in the absence of BMSC with p62-ZZ inhibitor #3 (10mM), this inhibitor directly induced cell death. The p62-ZZ inhibitor-induced cell death was characterized by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by inhibiting NF-kB activation, and apoptotic cell death by triggering the activation of caspases 3, 7, and 9. This inhibitor had an IC50 of 4.6mM for MM1.S survival. In contrast, CFU-Blast formation by human CD34+ cells was not inhibited by p62-ZZ inhibitor #3 (10mM). p62-ZZ inhibitor #3 (10mM) treatment of human OCL precursors derived from CFU-GM, inhibited OCL formation by blocking precursor proliferation. To examine the specificity of the p62-ZZ inhibitor #3, we tested its effects on OCL formation by CD11b+ mononuclear cells from wild type (WT) and p62−/− mice cultured with TNFα for 7 days. p62-ZZ inhibitor #3 blocked WT OCL formation but did not block p62−/− OCL formation. The p62-ZZ inhibitor also blocked VCAM-1 expression and IL-6 production by normal and MM patient stromal cells induced by TNFα compared to vehicle. Importantly, the inhibitor (10mM) did not block stromal cell proliferation. Further, the inhibitor blocked TNFα induced PKCζ phosphorylation in stromal cells and MM1.S when the cells were pretreated with the p62-ZZ inhibitor for 3 hours. These results demonstrate that p62-ZZ inhibitor #3 specifically blocks both stromal cells independent and dependent MM cell growth and OCL formation but does not affect hematopoietic or stromal cell growth. These results support p62 as a potential novel therapeutic target for MM.
Roodman:Amgen: Consultancy; Millennium: Consultancy.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.