Ponatinib is a potent, oral, pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor active against the native enzyme and all tested resistant mutants, including the uniformly resistant T315I mutation. Initial findings of a phase 1 trial in patients (pts) with refractory hematologic malignancies have been reported. The effect of duration of treatment, prior treatment, and mutation status on response to treatment was examined in CML chronic phase (CP) pts who responded to ponatinib. Methods: An open-label, dose escalation, phase 1 trial of ponatinib in pts with hematologic malignancies is ongoing. The primary aim is to assess the safety; anti-leukemic activity is also being investigated. Pts resistant to prior treatments or who had no standard treatment available were enrolled to receive a single daily oral dose of ponatinib (2 mg to 60 mg). Subset analyses of factors impacting cytogenetic and molecular response endpoints (MCyR and MMR) were performed for pts with CP-CML. Data are presented through April 15, 2011. Results: In total, 81 pts (54% male) received ponatinib. Overall, 43 pts had CP with 34 ongoing at analysis. MCyR was observed as best response in 31/43 (72%), 27 (63%) CCyR. The median time to MCyR was 12 (3 to 104) wks. Response rates were assessed by duration of treatment (1 pt in CCyR at entry was excluded; 6 pts in PCyR had to achieve CCyR). At the 3 month assessment, 22/42 (52%) CP pts achieved MCyR; at 6 months, 24/42 (57%); at 12 months, 29/42 (69%) had MCyR. The impact of prior treatment on response and time to response was assessed. 42 pts (98%) had >2 prior TKIs and 28 (65%) ≥3 prior TKIs, including investigational agents. Of approved TKIs, all pts were previously treated with imatinib, 19 dasatinib or nilotinib after imatinib, and 21 both dasatinib and nilotinib after imatinib. MCyR rate decreased with number of prior TKIs (2 prior TKIs 13/14 [93%], ≥3 prior TKIs 17/28 [61%]) and number of approved TKIs (imatinib followed by dasatinib or nilotinib 17/19 [90%], or by both dasatinib and nilotinib 12/21 [57%]). Time to response was prolonged in pts more heavily treated with prior TKIs. Median time to MCyR increased with the number of prior TKIs and approved TKIs (2 TKIs 12 wks, ≥3 TKIs 32 wks). The effect of mutation status on response and time to response was also evaluated. At entry, 12 pts had the T315I mutation, 15 had other BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations, 12 had no mutations detected, 4 did not allow sequencing. MCyR response rate for CP pts with T315I was 11/12 (92%); for other mutations, 10/15 (67%); and no mutation, 7/12 (58%). Similarly, mutation status had an impact on time to response: median time to MCyR was 12 wks for those with T315I or other mutations and 32 wks in resistant pts with no mutation. All CP patients were evaluable for MMR. At analysis, MMR was 17/43 (40%). MMR rate was inversely related to number of prior TKIs (2 TKIs 10/14 [71%], ≥3 TKIs 6/28 [21%]), approved TKIs (imatinib followed by dasatinib or nilotinib 12/19 [63%], or by both dasatinib and nilotinib 4/21 [19%]), and was higher for T315I pts (7/12, 58%) and those with other mutations (7/15, 47%) compared with no mutation (2/12, 17%). Median time to MMR for CP pts was 97 wks; median time to MMR was shorter for pts who were less heavily treated (2 prior TKIs 24 wks) and those with T315I or other mutations (63 wks). Conclusion: In this subset analysis of the phase 1 data, ponatinib had substantial activity in all subgroups analyzed. Time on treatment, less prior therapy and kinase domain mutations were associated with higher response rates and early responses in CP pts. Cytogenetic responses improved over the first 12 months of treatment and were higher in less heavily treated pts.
Cortes:Novartis: Consultancy, Research Funding; BMS: Consultancy, Research Funding; Pfizer: Consultancy, Research Funding; Ariad: Consultancy, Research Funding. Kantarjian:Novartis: Consultancy, Research Funding; Pfizer: Consultancy, Research Funding; BMS: Consultancy, Research Funding; ARIAD: Research Funding. Shah:Ariad: Consultancy, Research Funding. Bixby:Novartis: Speakers Bureau; BMS: Speakers Bureau; GSK: Speakers Bureau. Mauro:ARIAD: Research Funding. Flinn:ARIAD: Research Funding. Hu:ARIAD: Employment. Clackson:ARIAD: Employment, Equity Ownership. Rivera:ARIAD: Employment, Equity Ownership. Turner:ARIAD: Employment, Equity Ownership. Haluska:ARIAD: Employment, Equity Ownership. Druker:MolecularMD: OHSU and Dr. Druker have a financial interest in MolecularMD. Technology used in this research has been licensed to MolecularMD. This potential conflict of interest has been reviewed and managed by the OHSU Conflict of Interest in Research Committee and t. Deininger:BMS: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Ariad: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Novartis: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Celgene: Research Funding; Genzyme: Research Funding. Talpaz:ARIAD: Research Funding.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.