Given the life-threatening nature of severe VOD (sVOD) and multi-organ failure (MOF), DF was made available in the US through a prospective treatment IND protocol (T-IND) to gather additional safety and response data from SCT patients (pts) with sVOD who were not eligible for a pivotal Phase 3 trial. Following completion of this Phase 3 trial, the T-IND protocol has continued and been amended to include pts who would have met eligibility criteria for the completed phase 3 trial, as well as pts with non-severe VOD and non-SCT pts who develop VOD after chemotherapy (chemo). This is the largest prospective evaluation of DF for the treatment of sVOD/MOF post SCT and non-SCT pts to date.
Pts were initially required to have a diagnosis of VOD by Baltimore criteria (total bilirubin > 2.0 mg/dL with > 2 of the following: hepatomegaly, ascites or 5% weight gain) with MOF (either renal and/or pulmonary failure) that followed SCT. Following treatment of 104 pts, an amendment expanded eligibility criteria to include pts with VOD after chemo and pts with non-severe VOD (defined as no MOF). Key exclusion criteria included clinically significant bleeding or >1 pressor to maintain BP. CR was defined as bilirubin < 2 mg/dL + resolution of MOF (if applicable). Mortality was assessed at Day +100 (D+100) in all pts. DF was given at 6.25 mg/kg IV q6h (25 mg/kg/d) with treatment duration recommended for at least 21d.
This interim analysis is based on 269 pts enrolled between December 2007 and March 2011 at 67 centers. Nearly all pts (n=251) had undergone SCT (with allogeneic SCT in 225, 90%); 18 developed VOD after chemo alone. Of the 269 cases of VOD, 200 were severe at study entry, with 25% (66/269) of all pts dialysis dependent and 31% (83/269) ventilator dependent. Median age was 16 years (range 0.1 – 70); 55% were male. In the SCT pts, the most common diagnosis was leukemia (29% AML; 22% ALL; CML 3%; 4% other), with conditioning of CY (71%), BU (46%) and TBI (38%) respectively; 18% had undergone multiple SCTs (>1 SCT). Median onset of VOD was 15 d post-SCT. When presenting after chemo alone (n=18), median onset of VOD was 16 d after the first dose, most frequently after CY (61%), cytarabine (44%) and vincristine (39%), and for treatment of leukemia (AML 33%, ALL 33%, other 6%). Overall mean number of days of DF administration in all pts was 22 (range 1–88).Of 269 pts, 32% (85/269) achieved a CR and 50% [ by Kaplan-Meier estimate] survived to D+100. In the subgroup of SCT pts, 31% (78/251) achieved CR and 50% survived to D+100; 134 pts met entry criteria for the original Phase 3 trial and comparison to the Phase 3 historical control showed a statistically improved outcome in CR (30% vs 9%, p=0.0006) and D+100 survival (46% vs 25%; p=0.006). Of 200 pts with sVOD, CR was 28% and D+100 survival was 44%. In the 18 chemo only pts, CR was 39% and D+100 survival was 50%. CR rate and D+100 survival for the 69 pts with non-severe VOD were 42% and 62%, respectively. Delay of >2 d (vs < 2 d) in the start of DF after VOD diagnosis resulted in reduced CR (23% vs 35%, p=0.0339) and survival (37% vs 56%, p=0.01). Children as compared to adults had higher rates in CR (35% vs 29%) and survival (55% vs 43%). Toxicity proved generally manageable: 22% of pts experienced a total of 81 related AEs, primarily consisting of hemorrhage (19%) and hypotension (4%). Hemorrhage included pulmonary bleeding (6%), GI hemorrhage (3%), epistaxis (3%) and hematuria (3%). Similar to the observation of decreased GvHD in other studies, the incidence of all grade GvHD in the allogeneic SCT pts was 8%.
In 269 pts with mainly sVOD/MOF, DF therapy achieved significantly improved outcome compared to an untreated historical control. Importantly, CR and survival were improved in pts who were treated within 2d of VOD diagnosis (vs. later) and in pts who had not yet progressed to sVOD. As with prior studies, there was a low incidence of DF-associated toxicities. Interestingly, the incidence of GvHD in allo-SCT pts was low, consistent with the reduction of GvHD seen in the large randomized EBMT pediatric prevention study. These results confirm the findings of previous trials and strongly support early intervention with DF once the diagnosis of VOD is made after SCT, as well as its use in pts who have not progressed to advanced MOF. The use of DF for VOD following intensive chemotherapy without SCT also appears promising, but more research in this patient population is needed. Enrollment to the T-IND study continues.
Richardson:Gentium: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Arai:Gentium: Research Funding. Symons:Otsuka Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding. Martin:Gentium: Research Funding. Massaro:Gentium: Consultancy. D'Agostino:Gentium: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Hannah:Gentium: Consultancy. Tudone:Gentium: Employment. Hume:Gentium: Employment. Iacobelli:Gentium SpA: Employment. Soiffer:Gentium: Honoraria.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.
This icon denotes a clinically relevant abstract