Treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) can lead to development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We sought to describe the cumulative incidence of CVD in adult NHL survivors diagnosed in the recent treatment era (since 2002) and identify clinical and treatment predictors for its development.
All patients were from the Mayo component of the Molecular Epidemiology Resource (MER) of the University of Iowa/Mayo Clinic Lymphoma Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE). The MER offers enrollment to all consecutive patients with newly diagnosed NHL who are US residents and age >18 years. Clinical data from the time of diagnosis and treatment data are abstracted from medical records using a standard protocol. Patients are prospectively contacted via telephone or in person per protocol every 6 months for the first 3 years from diagnosis and yearly afterwards to assess disease status and development of comorbid conditions. CVD events, including heart failure (HF), myocardial infarction (MI), arrhythmia, pericarditis, and valvular heart disease, occurring after diagnosis were identified during follow-up and validated against medical records. HF was validated with the Cardiovascular Health Study Criteria and/or the Framingham Criteria. MI was validated using case definition standards of coronary heart disease, while arrhythmia, pericarditis, and valvular heart disease were validated using clinical definitions. The prevalence of CVD and associations between CVD and clinical characteristics (sex, age) and treatment (radiation, anthracyclines) were performed using Cox models with a competing risk approach.
1164 patients with NHL were enrolled into the MER at Mayo Clinic between 9/1/2002–2/28/2008. 646 were male (56%) and median age at diagnosis was 62 years (range 20–93). Median follow-up of all cases was 59 months (range 1–105). 131 patients reported CVD prior to the diagnosis of NHL and were excluded from analyses. An additional 76 patients did not have follow-up and were excluded. Of the 957 remaining patients, 75 (7.8%) self-reported a new diagnosis of CVD. Of these, 71 cases had available medical records. 57 of the 71 reviewed cases (80%) were validated (18 HF, 9 MI, 21 arrhythmia, 2 pericarditis, and 10 valvular heart disease). Cumulative incidence of CVD at 1, 3, 5, and 7 years was 1.3%, 3.7%, 5.2%, and 7.4%, respectively. Median time from NHL diagnosis to CVD was 26.5 months (range 1–84). Older age was associated with increased risk of overall CVD (p-value<0.001). Gender (p=0.59), radiation therapy (p=0.61), and anthracycline treatment (p=0.25) were not associated with the incidence of overall CVD. Among types of CVD, anthracycline use was associated with development of HF (HR=5.30; p-value=0.008) and arrhythmia (HR=2.68; p-value=0.04). Radiation was associated with development of arrhythmia (HR=2.73; p-value=0.03), while older age was associated with development of HF (HR=1.36 per 5 year increment; p-value=0.003) and arrhythmia (HR=1.25 per 5 year increment; p-value=0.02).
The risk of CVD in patients with NHL is approximately 1% per year after the initial diagnosis of lymphoma. The most commonly occurring CVDs in this cohort of NHL survivors were arrhythmia and HF. Treatment with anthracyclines and radiation are associated with increased risk of developing some types of CVD. 80% of self-reported CVD events in NHL survivors were validated using epidemiologic criteria. Future studies will include building models incorporating comorbid health conditions and lifestyle factors to determine risk of CVD as well as the impact of CVD on quality of life.
No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.