Because IDH mutations are frequent in blast-phase myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), they might contribute to leukemic transformation. We examined this possibility in 301 consecutive patients with chronic-phase primary myelofibrosis (PMF). All study patients were fully characterized for karyotype, JAK2 and MPL mutational status, and Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System-plus (DIPSS-plus) risk status. DNA from bone marrow or peripheral blood was used to screen for IDH1 and IDH2 mutations, by direct sequencing and/or high resolution melting (HRM) assay. Mutant IDH was detected in 12 patients (4%): seven IDH2 (five R140Q, one R140W and one R172G) and five IDH1 (three R132S and two R132C). MPL exon 10 was mutated in 18 patients (6.3%) and constituted W515L in 14 patients, W515K in 3 and a frameshift mutation in 1 patient. JAK2V617F was detected in 169 (56%) patients. Six patients displayed both JAK2V617F and IDH mutations (IDH2R140Q in 2 patients, IDH2R140W in 1 and IDH1R132S in 3); JAK2V617F allele burden was 1%, 7%, 22%, 27%, 30% and 96%, respectively. One patient displayed both IDHR140Q and MPLW515R. One-hundred and seven (36%) patients were negative for all three mutations. The 12 IDH-mutated patients were clinically compared to patients belonging to the three other molecular subgroups: mutated for JAK2 only (n=164), mutated for MPL only (n=18) and unmutated for all three (n=107). The four molecular subgroups were remarkably similar in their phenotype with few exceptions; IDH-mutated patients were significantly older than those with no mutations (p=0.04) whereas age distribution was similar between patients with mutant IDH, MPL or JAK2. In univariate analysis, overall survival (OS) for IDH-mutated patients was significantly shorter than those for JAK2-mutated (p=0.03), MPL-mutated (p=0.047) or unmutated (p=0.0009) patients. IDH-mutated patients also showed significantly shorter leukemia-free survival (LFS), compared to those with mutant JAK2 (p=0.0008), mutant MPL (p=0.02) or no mutations (p=0.001). After accounting for age, the presence of mutant IDH remained a significant disadvantage for both OS (p=0.04) and LFS (p=0.005). Multivariable analysis of OS that included risk categorization per DIPSS-plus confirmed the independent prognostic relevance of mutant IDH (p=0.03): HR for patients with no mutations =0.39, 95% CI 0.2–0.75; HR for JAK2-mutated patients =0.50, 95% CI 0.27–0.95; HR for MPL-mutated patients =0.53, 95% CI 0.23–1.2. A similar analysis for LFS that included risk factors for LT (i.e. unfavorable karyotype and platelet count <100 × 109/L) as covariates also confirmed the prognostic relevance of mutant IDH (p=0.003): HR for patients with no mutations =0.16; 95% CI 0.06–0.46; HR for JAK2-mutated patients =0.18; 95% CI 0.06–0.48; HR for MPL-mutated patients =0.09; 95% CI 0.01–0.76). Further analysis disclosed that the negative OS and LFS effect of mutant IDH was most pronounced in the presence (p=0.0002 and <0.0001, respectively) as opposed to the absence (p=0.34 and 0.64, respectively) of concomitant JAK2V617F expression. Analysis of paired samples obtained during the chronic and blast phases of the disease was possible in 2 IDH-mutated patients and showed the presence of both IDH and JAK2 mutations at both time points. Our observations suggest that IDH mutations in PMF are independent predictors of leukemic transformation and raise the possibility of leukemogenic collaboration with JAK2V617F.
No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
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