Mutations within the BCR-ABL domain are the most frequent mechanism of imatinib (IM) resistance. The second generation inhibitors (SGI) are indicated for imatinib intolerance or resistance and the initials trials showed similar response rates in IM resistant patients after IM failure, independent of mutation status, with exception of T315I.
The aim of this work was to report the frequency of BCR-ABL mutations in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients of a Latin American population and to evaluate the clinical impact of the presence and type of mutations in overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS) and in the response to second generation inhibitors (SGI).
retrospective analysis of 17 centers from Latin America. A total of 529 CML patients with mutation analysis performed in samples collected between 2002 and 2011 were included. Mutations were detected by direct sequencing from bone marrow or peripheral blood samples, collected from CML patients. After imatinib resistance, patients were treated with SGI (69%) or other treatments. Overall survival (OS) was calculated from date of mutation detection until last follow-up or death, and progression-free survival (PFS) from date of mutation detection until progression to accelerated phase or blast crisis, last follow-up or death. Survival curves were calculated using the log-rang test (SPSS 14.0 software).Results: the median age of patients at diagnosis was 45 years (5–87). 81% were in chronic phase (CP), 13% in accelerated phase (AP), 6% in blast crisis (BC). According to Sokal score, patients were stratified in low (36%), intermediate (30%) and high risk (34%); 36% had previously used Interferon. The median time from diagnosis until Imatinib treatment was 8 months (0–310) and from Imatinib start until mutation detection was 31 months (1–104). Mutations were found in 188 patients, in the following sites: P-loop (75/40%), nucleotide contact site (34/18%), catalytic domain (44/23%), A-loop (11/6%) and others (24/13%). The most frequent mutations detected were: T315I (30/16%), F359V/C/I (27/14%), M244V (18/9.6%), E255K/V (17/9%), G250E (17/9%), Y253H/F/Y (15/8%), M351T/L (12/6%); Ten patients presented concomitant mutations. On dasatinib treatment 29 mutations (27% T315I) were detected whereas 18 during nilotinib (16.5% T315I). Overall survival in the total group was 61% (95%CI: 51–71%) with a median time of 12 months. There was a significant difference in OS and PFS between non-mutated and mutated patients (76% vs 44% and 64% vs 44% respectively (P= 0.008 and P= 0.001). There was no difference in survival comparing P-loop mutations and others, excluding T315I. Patients with T315I mutations had a poorer outcome in comparison with other mutations (OS 21% vs 62%; PFS 35% vs 55%) (P= 0.04 and 0.06, respectively). In the group with BCR-AL mutations, OS was superior in patients that received a SGI in comparison with other treatments after resistance (50% vs 36% P= 0.007). One hundred patients (19%) died due to: disease progression (72), infections (8), graft versus host disease (2), central nervous system bleeding (2), cardiac failure (1), second neoplasia (1). 14 causes were not reported.
Patients with BCR-ABL mutations had an inferior OS and PFS. T315I mutations were associated to a poor outcome. Treatment with SGI prolonged survival of patients after imatinib failure.
Pagnano:Novartis: Speakers Bureau; Bristol Myers Squibb: Speakers Bureau. Boquimpani:Novartis: Speakers Bureau; Bristol Myers Squibb: Speakers Bureau. Pasquini:Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; Bristol Myers Squibb: Speakers Bureau. Spector:Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.