Abstract

Several cancer treatments are shifting from traditional, time-limited, nonspecific cytotoxic chemotherapy cycles to continuous oral treatment with specific protein-targeted therapies. In this line, imatinib mesylate, a selective tyrosine kinases inhibitor (TKI), has excellent efficacy in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. It has opened the way to the development of additional TKIs against chronic myeloid leukemia, including nilotinib and dasatinib. TKIs are prescribed for prolonged periods, often in patients with comorbidities. Therefore, they are regularly co-administered along with treatments at risk of drug-drug interactions. This aspect has been partially addressed so far, calling for a comprehensive review of the published data. We review here the available evidence and pharmacologic mechanisms of interactions between imatinib, dasatinib, and nilotinib and widely prescribed co-medications, including known inhibitors or inducers of cytochromes P450 or drug transporters. Information is mostly available for imatinib mesylate, well introduced in clinical practice. Several pharmacokinetic aspects yet remain insufficiently investigated for these drugs. Regular updates will be mandatory and so is the prospective reporting of unexpected clinical observations.

Introduction

Targeted cancer therapies have been designed to interact with particular proteins associated with tumor development or progression. Many of these agents are tyrosine kinases inhibitors (TKIs), targeting enzymes whose disregulated expression and activity are associated with various cancers.1  The pioneer small-molecule TKI imatinib has revolutionized the treatment and prognosis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Imatinib inhibits the tyrosine kinase Bcr-Abl,2  a fusion oncoprotein resulting from the translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11),3  which is associated with the characteristic Philadelphia chromosome,2  a hallmark of chronic myeloid leukemia and of some acute lymphoblastic leukemias.4 

However, some patients, especially those in the advanced phase of the disease, develop resistance to imatinib therapy, because of various mechanisms such as BCR-ABL gene amplification,5  low imatinib absorption, or more frequently point mutations into the oncoprotein sequence.6  Several new inhibitors have been developed with increased potency and a broader range of activity against imatinib-resistant mutants. In vitro studies have shown that nilotinib, an imatinib derivative, and dasatinib, structurally unrelated to imatinib, are, respectively, 20- and 300-fold more potent than imatinib against unmutated Abl7  and are active against many imatinib-resistant Bcr-Abl mutants.7 

TKIs are extensively metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP), whose activities are characterized by a large degree of interindividual variability.8  Some TKIs are also substrates or inhibitors of the drug transporters P-glycoprotein (Pgp; coded by ABCB1) Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP; ABCG2) and the organic cation transporter 1 (hOCT1; SLC22A1).9–13  A standard regimen can therefore produce very different circulating and cell concentration profiles from one patient to another, thus favoring the selection of resistant cellular clones by subtherapeutic drug exposure or the occurrence of toxicity in case of overexposure.14,15  Identifying the best active and safe dosing schedule for individual patients to maximize therapeutic benefit has become a scientific and clinical challenge. Combination therapies have been investigated in various conditions, which certainly add a level of treatment complexity, because overlapping toxicities and pharmacokinetic interactions have to be taken into consideration.16,17 

We review here systematically and present under an easy-consulting form (Table 1) the information available on pharmacologic interactions between imatinib, dasatinib, and nilotinib and drugs concomitantly prescribed to patients receiving TKIs. The drugs were selected on the basis of the information extracted from our database, used within the framework of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of TKIs.15  Moreover, classical inhibitors or inducers of cytochromes P450 or drug transporters were also included in this review. We do not intend here to replace individualized medical evaluation, and the data presented here should be used in addition to thorough clinical judgment. Indeed, it may be that our searches still missed some interactions, and actually most interactions do not represent true contraindications but rather call for appropriate dosage adjustments and treatment monitoring measures.

Review of the literature

In addition to official monographs of the drugs,9  literature from Medline and Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews was systematically searched, using the following MeSH terms: “Drug interactions,” “Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System,” “P-Glycoprotein,” “ABCG2 protein,” “organic cation transporter 1,” “Protein binding,” and the respective TKI and concomitant drugs names. In addition, 2 drug information databases (UpToDate online18  and Cancer Care Ontario19 ) were screened, and abstracts of international and national conferences, review articles, and references given in identified articles were also scanned.20–22  All relevant cited literature on pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions was considered for inclusion in Table 1.

Table 1

(in 10 parts) summarizes observed or potential drug interactions between TKIs and commonly concomitantly prescribed drugs or classical interacting agents (lines) sorted according to the ATC classification. The arrows ↑ and ↓ indicate an increase or decrease of drug concentration, respectively. Boldface text outlines interactions reported in the literature (reference number), whereas standard characters represent potential interactions predicted from theoretical considerations (but not yet reported in the literature). “Absence of interaction” means that a clinical study concluded to the absence of interaction (reference number), and “—” means that no interaction is either reported or theoretically expected.

Part 1. Alimentary tract and metabolism
ImatinibDasatinibNilotinib
PPI    
    Omeprazole • Inhibition of Pgp by omeprazole:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,64  
• ↓ dasatinib absorption9 
(↓ dasatinib solubility)
• Inhibition of Pgp by omeprazole:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,64  
— 
    Esomeprazole • Inhibition of Pgp by esomeprazole:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,64  
• ↓ dasatinib absorption9 
(↓ dasatinib solubility)
• Inhibition of Pgp by esomeprazole:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,64  
— 
    Pantoprazole • Inhibition of Pgp by pantoprazole:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,64  
• ↓ dasatinib absorption9 
(↓ dasatinib solubility)
• Inhibition of Pgp by pantoprazole:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,64  
— 
H2-antagonists    
    Cimetidine • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by cimetidine:
↑ imatinib exposure18,65 
• Inhibition of hOCT1 by cimetidine:
↓ imatinib intracellular exposure18,64,65  
• ↓ dasatinib absorption9 
(↓ dasatinib solubility)
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by cimetidine:
↑ dasatinib exposure18,65  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by cimetidine:
↑ nilotinib exposure18,65  
    Ranitidine • Inhibition of Pgp by ranitidine:
↑ imatinib exposure18,65 
• Inhibition of hOCT1 by ranitidine:
↓ imatinib intracellular exposure9,18,64,65  
• ↓ dasatinib absorption9 
(↓ dasatinib solubility)
• Inhibition of Pgp by ranitidine:
↑ dasatinib exposure18,65  
— 
Antiemetics    
    Metoclopramide — • ↑ QT interval19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• ↑ QT interval19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
Antidiabetic drugs    
    Insulin — — — 
    Metformin • Inhibition of hOCT1 by metformin:
↓ imatinib intracellular exposure9,18,64  
— — 
    Glibenclamide • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2C9 by imatinib:
↑ glibenclamide exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of Pgp by glibenclamide:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,64  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ glibenclamide exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of Pgp by glibenclamide:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,64  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2C9 by nilotinib:
↑ glibenclamide exposure9,18,19  
    Acarbose — — — 
    Rosiglitazone • Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by imatinib:
↑ rosiglitazone exposure9,18,19  
— • Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by nilotinib:
↑ rosiglitazone exposure9,18,19  
    Pioglitazone • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2C9 by imatinib:
↑ pioglitazone exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ pioglitazone exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2C9 by nilotinib:
↑ pioglitazone exposure9,18,19  
    Nateglinide • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2C9 by imatinib:
↑ nateglinide exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ nateglinide exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2C9 by nilotinib:
↑ nateglinide exposure9,18,19  
    Repaglinide • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ repaglinide exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2C8 by dasatinib:
↑ repaglinide exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2C8 by nilotinib:
↑ repaglinide exposure9,18,19  
Part 1. Alimentary tract and metabolism
ImatinibDasatinibNilotinib
PPI    
    Omeprazole • Inhibition of Pgp by omeprazole:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,64  
• ↓ dasatinib absorption9 
(↓ dasatinib solubility)
• Inhibition of Pgp by omeprazole:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,64  
— 
    Esomeprazole • Inhibition of Pgp by esomeprazole:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,64  
• ↓ dasatinib absorption9 
(↓ dasatinib solubility)
• Inhibition of Pgp by esomeprazole:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,64  
— 
    Pantoprazole • Inhibition of Pgp by pantoprazole:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,64  
• ↓ dasatinib absorption9 
(↓ dasatinib solubility)
• Inhibition of Pgp by pantoprazole:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,64  
— 
H2-antagonists    
    Cimetidine • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by cimetidine:
↑ imatinib exposure18,65 
• Inhibition of hOCT1 by cimetidine:
↓ imatinib intracellular exposure18,64,65  
• ↓ dasatinib absorption9 
(↓ dasatinib solubility)
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by cimetidine:
↑ dasatinib exposure18,65  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by cimetidine:
↑ nilotinib exposure18,65  
    Ranitidine • Inhibition of Pgp by ranitidine:
↑ imatinib exposure18,65 
• Inhibition of hOCT1 by ranitidine:
↓ imatinib intracellular exposure9,18,64,65  
• ↓ dasatinib absorption9 
(↓ dasatinib solubility)
• Inhibition of Pgp by ranitidine:
↑ dasatinib exposure18,65  
— 
Antiemetics    
    Metoclopramide — • ↑ QT interval19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• ↑ QT interval19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
Antidiabetic drugs    
    Insulin — — — 
    Metformin • Inhibition of hOCT1 by metformin:
↓ imatinib intracellular exposure9,18,64  
— — 
    Glibenclamide • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2C9 by imatinib:
↑ glibenclamide exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of Pgp by glibenclamide:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,64  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ glibenclamide exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of Pgp by glibenclamide:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,64  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2C9 by nilotinib:
↑ glibenclamide exposure9,18,19  
    Acarbose — — — 
    Rosiglitazone • Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by imatinib:
↑ rosiglitazone exposure9,18,19  
— • Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by nilotinib:
↑ rosiglitazone exposure9,18,19  
    Pioglitazone • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2C9 by imatinib:
↑ pioglitazone exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ pioglitazone exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2C9 by nilotinib:
↑ pioglitazone exposure9,18,19  
    Nateglinide • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2C9 by imatinib:
↑ nateglinide exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ nateglinide exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2C9 by nilotinib:
↑ nateglinide exposure9,18,19  
    Repaglinide • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ repaglinide exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2C8 by dasatinib:
↑ repaglinide exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2C8 by nilotinib:
↑ repaglinide exposure9,18,19  
Part 2. Blood and blood-forming organs
ImatinibDasatinibNilotinib
Antiplatelet drug*    
    Clopidogrel • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2C19 by imatinib:
↑clopidogrel exposure9,18,19 
↓ clopidogrel bioactivation9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ clopidogrel exposure9,18,19 
↓ clopidogrel bioactivation9,18,19 
Thrombocytopenic effect of dasatinib:
risk of bleeding9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ clopidogrel exposure9,18,19 
↓ clopidogrel bioactivation9,18,19  
Anticoagulants*    
    Acenocoumarol Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by imatinib:
anticoagulation
monitor PT/INR9  
Thrombocytopenic effect of dasatinib:
risk of bleeding9,18,19  
Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by nilotinib:
anticoagulation
monitor PT/INR9  
    Phenprocoumon Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by imatinib:
anticoagulation
monitor PT/INR9  
Thrombocytopenic effect of dasatinib:
risk of bleeding9,18,19  
Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by nilotinib:
anticoagulation
monitor PT/INR9  
    Warfarin Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by imatinib:
anticoagulation
monitor PT/INR9  
Thrombocytopenic effect of dasatinib:
risk of bleeding9,18,19  
Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by nilotinib:
anticoagulation
monitor PT/INR9  
    Heparin Inhibition of Pgp by heparin:
imatinib exposure66  
Thrombocytopenic effect of dasatinib:
risk of bleeding9,18,19 
Inhibition of Pgp by heparin:
dasatinib exposure9,10,52,66–68  
— 
    Enoxaparin — Thrombocytopenic effect of dasatinib:
risk of bleeding9,18,19  
— 
    Nadroparin — Thrombocytopenic effect of dasatinib:
risk of bleeding9,18,19  
— 
    Dalteparin — Thrombocytopenic effect of dasatinib:
risk of bleeding9,18,19  
— 
Part 2. Blood and blood-forming organs
ImatinibDasatinibNilotinib
Antiplatelet drug*    
    Clopidogrel • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2C19 by imatinib:
↑clopidogrel exposure9,18,19 
↓ clopidogrel bioactivation9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ clopidogrel exposure9,18,19 
↓ clopidogrel bioactivation9,18,19 
Thrombocytopenic effect of dasatinib:
risk of bleeding9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ clopidogrel exposure9,18,19 
↓ clopidogrel bioactivation9,18,19  
Anticoagulants*    
    Acenocoumarol Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by imatinib:
anticoagulation
monitor PT/INR9  
Thrombocytopenic effect of dasatinib:
risk of bleeding9,18,19  
Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by nilotinib:
anticoagulation
monitor PT/INR9  
    Phenprocoumon Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by imatinib:
anticoagulation
monitor PT/INR9  
Thrombocytopenic effect of dasatinib:
risk of bleeding9,18,19  
Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by nilotinib:
anticoagulation
monitor PT/INR9  
    Warfarin Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by imatinib:
anticoagulation
monitor PT/INR9  
Thrombocytopenic effect of dasatinib:
risk of bleeding9,18,19  
Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by nilotinib:
anticoagulation
monitor PT/INR9  
    Heparin Inhibition of Pgp by heparin:
imatinib exposure66  
Thrombocytopenic effect of dasatinib:
risk of bleeding9,18,19 
Inhibition of Pgp by heparin:
dasatinib exposure9,10,52,66–68  
— 
    Enoxaparin — Thrombocytopenic effect of dasatinib:
risk of bleeding9,18,19  
— 
    Nadroparin — Thrombocytopenic effect of dasatinib:
risk of bleeding9,18,19  
— 
    Dalteparin — Thrombocytopenic effect of dasatinib:
risk of bleeding9,18,19  
— 
Part 3. Cardiovascular system
ImatinibDasatinibNilotinib
Calcium channel blockers    
    Verapamil • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by imatinib:
↑ verapamil exposure9,23,24,55,69–72 
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by verapamil:
imatinib exposure24,69,70,72  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ verapamil exposure9,18 
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by verapamil:
dasatinib exposure9,10,52,67,68  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by nilotinib:
↑ verapamil exposure9,18,19,25,73 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by verapamil:
↑ nilotinib exposure9,18,19  
    Diltiazem Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
diltiazem exposure9,18 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by diltiazem:
↑ imatinib exposure9,23,24,55,69–72  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ diltiazem exposure9,18 
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by diltiazem:
dasatinib exposure9,10,52,67,68  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ diltiazem exposure9,18 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by diltiazem:
↑ nilotinib exposure9,18,19  
    Nifedipine Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
nifedipine exposure9,18,74  
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
nifedipine exposure9,18,74  
• Inhibition of CYP3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ nifedipine exposure9,18,74  
    Amlodipine Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
amlodipine exposure9,18,19  
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
amlodipine exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ amlodipine exposure9,18,19  
NO precursors    
    Molsidomine — — — 
    Isosorbid mononitrate (ISMN) • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ ISMN exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ ISMN exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ ISMN exposure9,18,19  
    Isosorbid dinitrate (ISDN) • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ ISDN exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ ISDN exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ ISDN exposure9,18,19  
    Nitroglycerine — — — 
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors    
    Simvastatin Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
simvastatin exposure9,18,19,48 
• Inhibition of Pgp by simvastatin:
↑ imatinib exposure9,23,24,55,69–72  
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
simvastatin exposure9,18,19,48 
• Inhibition of Pgp by simvastatin:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,10,52,67,68  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ simvastatin exposure9,18,19  
    Pravastatin — — — 
    Atorvastatin Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
atorvastatin exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of Pgp by atorvastatin:
↑ imatinib exposure9,23,24,55,69–72  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ atorvastatin exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of Pgp by atorvastatin:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,10,67,68  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ atorvastatin exposure9,18,19  
    Rosuvastatin — — — 
Antiarrhythmic drugs    
    Amiodarone • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by imatinib:
↑ amiodarone exposure9,23,24,69,70,72,75 
• Inhibition of CYP3A4 and Pgp by amiodarone:
↑ imatinib exposure9,23,24,69,70,72,75 
• Inhibition of hOCT1 by amiodarone:
↓ imatinib intracellular exposure9,18,64  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ amiodarone exposure9,23,24,69,70,72,75 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by amiodarone:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,10,67,68,75 
• ↑ QT interval19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• Inhibition of Pgp and CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ amiodarone exposure9,18,19,25,73 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by amiodarone:
↑ nilotinib exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
    Quinidine Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
quinidine exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of Pgp by quinidine:
↑ imatinib exposure9,23,24,55,69–72 
• Inhibition of hOCT1 by quinidine:
↓ imatinib intracellular exposure9,18,65  
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
quinidine exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of Pgp by quinidine:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ quinidine exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
Diuretics    
    Furosemide Absence of interaction76  — — 
    Torasemide • Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by imatinib:
↑ torasemide exposure9,18  
— • Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by nilotinib:
↑ torasemide exposure9,18  
    Hydrochlorothiazide — — — 
    Spironolactone • Inhibition of Pgp by spironolactone:
↑ imatinib exposure9,64  
• Inhibition of Pgp by spironolactone:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,10,52,64,67  
— 
Beta blockers    
    Metoprolol Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by imatinib:
metoprolol exposure18  
• Inhibition of Pgp by metoprolol:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,10,52,67  
• Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ metoprolol exposure9,18,19  
    Bisoprolol Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by imatinib:
bisoprolol exposure18  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ bisoprolol exposure9,18  
• Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ bisoprolol exposure9,18,19  
    Carvedilol • Inhibition of CYP 2C9 and 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ carvedilol exposure18 
• Inhibition of Pgp by carvedilol:
↑ imatinib exposure64,71,77  
• Inhibition of Pgp by carvedilol:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,10,52,67,68,77  
• Inhibition of CYP 2C9 and 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ carvedilol exposure9,18,19  
    Atenolol Absence of interaction9  — — 
ACE inhibitors    
    Captopril • Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ captopril exposure18 
• Inhibition of Pgp by captopril:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,23,64,70,72  
• Inhibition of Pgp by captopril:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,10,52,67  
• Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ captopril exposure9,18,19  
    Enalapril • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ enalapril exposure18 
• Inhibition of Pgp by enalapril:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,23,64,70,72  
• Inhibition of Pgp by enalapril:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,10,52,67  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ enalapril exposure9,18,19  
    Ramipril — — — 
    Lisinopril • Inhibition of Pgp by imatinib:
↑ lisinopril exposure9,18,23,64,70,72 
• Inhibition of Pgp by lisinopril:
↑ imatinib exposure9  
• Inhibition of Pgp by lisinopril:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,10,52,67  
— 
AT II receptor blockers    
    Losartan • Inhibition of CYP 2C9 and 3A4 by imatinib:
losartan exposure and
↓ losartan bioactivation9,18,19 
• Inhibition of Pgp by losartan:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ losartan exposure9,18 
• Inhibition of Pgp by losartan:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,10,52,67  
• Inhibition of CYP 2C9 and 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ losartan exposure and
↓ losartan bioactivation9,18,19  
    Candesartan — — — 
Cardiac glycosides    
    Digoxin • ↓ digoxin absorption9,18,19 
(unknown mechanism) 
• ↑ QT interval19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• ↑ QT interval19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG
• Inhibition of Pgp by nilotinib:
↑ digoxin exposure9,18,19  
Part 3. Cardiovascular system
ImatinibDasatinibNilotinib
Calcium channel blockers    
    Verapamil • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by imatinib:
↑ verapamil exposure9,23,24,55,69–72 
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by verapamil:
imatinib exposure24,69,70,72  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ verapamil exposure9,18 
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by verapamil:
dasatinib exposure9,10,52,67,68  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by nilotinib:
↑ verapamil exposure9,18,19,25,73 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by verapamil:
↑ nilotinib exposure9,18,19  
    Diltiazem Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
diltiazem exposure9,18 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by diltiazem:
↑ imatinib exposure9,23,24,55,69–72  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ diltiazem exposure9,18 
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by diltiazem:
dasatinib exposure9,10,52,67,68  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ diltiazem exposure9,18 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by diltiazem:
↑ nilotinib exposure9,18,19  
    Nifedipine Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
nifedipine exposure9,18,74  
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
nifedipine exposure9,18,74  
• Inhibition of CYP3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ nifedipine exposure9,18,74  
    Amlodipine Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
amlodipine exposure9,18,19  
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
amlodipine exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ amlodipine exposure9,18,19  
NO precursors    
    Molsidomine — — — 
    Isosorbid mononitrate (ISMN) • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ ISMN exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ ISMN exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ ISMN exposure9,18,19  
    Isosorbid dinitrate (ISDN) • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ ISDN exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ ISDN exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ ISDN exposure9,18,19  
    Nitroglycerine — — — 
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors    
    Simvastatin Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
simvastatin exposure9,18,19,48 
• Inhibition of Pgp by simvastatin:
↑ imatinib exposure9,23,24,55,69–72  
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
simvastatin exposure9,18,19,48 
• Inhibition of Pgp by simvastatin:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,10,52,67,68  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ simvastatin exposure9,18,19  
    Pravastatin — — — 
    Atorvastatin Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
atorvastatin exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of Pgp by atorvastatin:
↑ imatinib exposure9,23,24,55,69–72  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ atorvastatin exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of Pgp by atorvastatin:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,10,67,68  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ atorvastatin exposure9,18,19  
    Rosuvastatin — — — 
Antiarrhythmic drugs    
    Amiodarone • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by imatinib:
↑ amiodarone exposure9,23,24,69,70,72,75 
• Inhibition of CYP3A4 and Pgp by amiodarone:
↑ imatinib exposure9,23,24,69,70,72,75 
• Inhibition of hOCT1 by amiodarone:
↓ imatinib intracellular exposure9,18,64  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ amiodarone exposure9,23,24,69,70,72,75 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by amiodarone:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,10,67,68,75 
• ↑ QT interval19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• Inhibition of Pgp and CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ amiodarone exposure9,18,19,25,73 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by amiodarone:
↑ nilotinib exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
    Quinidine Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
quinidine exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of Pgp by quinidine:
↑ imatinib exposure9,23,24,55,69–72 
• Inhibition of hOCT1 by quinidine:
↓ imatinib intracellular exposure9,18,65  
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
quinidine exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of Pgp by quinidine:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ quinidine exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
Diuretics    
    Furosemide Absence of interaction76  — — 
    Torasemide • Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by imatinib:
↑ torasemide exposure9,18  
— • Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by nilotinib:
↑ torasemide exposure9,18  
    Hydrochlorothiazide — — — 
    Spironolactone • Inhibition of Pgp by spironolactone:
↑ imatinib exposure9,64  
• Inhibition of Pgp by spironolactone:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,10,52,64,67  
— 
Beta blockers    
    Metoprolol Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by imatinib:
metoprolol exposure18  
• Inhibition of Pgp by metoprolol:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,10,52,67  
• Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ metoprolol exposure9,18,19  
    Bisoprolol Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by imatinib:
bisoprolol exposure18  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ bisoprolol exposure9,18  
• Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ bisoprolol exposure9,18,19  
    Carvedilol • Inhibition of CYP 2C9 and 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ carvedilol exposure18 
• Inhibition of Pgp by carvedilol:
↑ imatinib exposure64,71,77  
• Inhibition of Pgp by carvedilol:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,10,52,67,68,77  
• Inhibition of CYP 2C9 and 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ carvedilol exposure9,18,19  
    Atenolol Absence of interaction9  — — 
ACE inhibitors    
    Captopril • Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ captopril exposure18 
• Inhibition of Pgp by captopril:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,23,64,70,72  
• Inhibition of Pgp by captopril:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,10,52,67  
• Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ captopril exposure9,18,19  
    Enalapril • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ enalapril exposure18 
• Inhibition of Pgp by enalapril:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,23,64,70,72  
• Inhibition of Pgp by enalapril:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,10,52,67  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ enalapril exposure9,18,19  
    Ramipril — — — 
    Lisinopril • Inhibition of Pgp by imatinib:
↑ lisinopril exposure9,18,23,64,70,72 
• Inhibition of Pgp by lisinopril:
↑ imatinib exposure9  
• Inhibition of Pgp by lisinopril:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,10,52,67  
— 
AT II receptor blockers    
    Losartan • Inhibition of CYP 2C9 and 3A4 by imatinib:
losartan exposure and
↓ losartan bioactivation9,18,19 
• Inhibition of Pgp by losartan:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ losartan exposure9,18 
• Inhibition of Pgp by losartan:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,10,52,67  
• Inhibition of CYP 2C9 and 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ losartan exposure and
↓ losartan bioactivation9,18,19  
    Candesartan — — — 
Cardiac glycosides    
    Digoxin • ↓ digoxin absorption9,18,19 
(unknown mechanism) 
• ↑ QT interval19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• ↑ QT interval19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG
• Inhibition of Pgp by nilotinib:
↑ digoxin exposure9,18,19  
Part 4. Hormonal preparations
ImatinibDasatinibNilotinib
Corticosteroids    
    Prednisone — — — 
    Dexamethasone Induction of CYP 3A4 by dexamethasone:
imatinib exposure19  
Induction of CYP 3A4 by dexamethasone:
dasatinib exposure19  
• Induction of CYP 3A4 by dexamethasone:
↓ nilotinib exposure9,18,19  
    Betamethasone — — — 
Thyroid therapy    
    Levothyroxine Induction of UGTs by imatinib:
levothyroxine31,32 
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by levothyroxine:
imatinib exposure31,32  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by levothyroxine:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by levothyroxine:
↑ nilotinib exposure9,19  
    Carbimazole — — — 
Antineoplastic agents    
    Cyclophosphamide • Inhibition of CYP 2D6 and 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ cyclophosphamide exposure
↓ cyclophosphamide bioactivation9,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ cyclophosphamide exposure
↓ cyclophosphamide bioactivation9,19  
Induction of CYP 2B6 by nilotinib:
cyclophosphamide exposure
cyclophosphamide bioactivation19 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ cyclophosphamide exposure9,19 
↓ cyclophosphamide bioactivation19  
Antiestrogen agent    
    Tamoxifen Inhibition of CYP 2D6 and 3A4 by imatinib:
tamoxifen exposure
tamoxifen bioactivation18,78  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ tamoxifen exposure
↓ tamoxifen bioactivation18,78  
Inhibition of CYP 2D6 and 3A4 by nilotinib:
tamoxifen exposure
tamoxifen bioactivation18,78  
Part 4. Hormonal preparations
ImatinibDasatinibNilotinib
Corticosteroids    
    Prednisone — — — 
    Dexamethasone Induction of CYP 3A4 by dexamethasone:
imatinib exposure19  
Induction of CYP 3A4 by dexamethasone:
dasatinib exposure19  
• Induction of CYP 3A4 by dexamethasone:
↓ nilotinib exposure9,18,19  
    Betamethasone — — — 
Thyroid therapy    
    Levothyroxine Induction of UGTs by imatinib:
levothyroxine31,32 
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by levothyroxine:
imatinib exposure31,32  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by levothyroxine:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by levothyroxine:
↑ nilotinib exposure9,19  
    Carbimazole — — — 
Antineoplastic agents    
    Cyclophosphamide • Inhibition of CYP 2D6 and 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ cyclophosphamide exposure
↓ cyclophosphamide bioactivation9,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ cyclophosphamide exposure
↓ cyclophosphamide bioactivation9,19  
Induction of CYP 2B6 by nilotinib:
cyclophosphamide exposure
cyclophosphamide bioactivation19 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ cyclophosphamide exposure9,19 
↓ cyclophosphamide bioactivation19  
Antiestrogen agent    
    Tamoxifen Inhibition of CYP 2D6 and 3A4 by imatinib:
tamoxifen exposure
tamoxifen bioactivation18,78  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ tamoxifen exposure
↓ tamoxifen bioactivation18,78  
Inhibition of CYP 2D6 and 3A4 by nilotinib:
tamoxifen exposure
tamoxifen bioactivation18,78  
Part 5. Anti-infectives
ImatinibDasatinibNilotinib
Penicillins    
    Amoxicillin — — — 
    Flucloxacillin — — — 
Cephalosporins    
    Céfuroxime — — — 
    Cefpodoxime — — — 
    Ceftriaxone — — — 
Macrolides    
    Clarithromycin Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by clarithromycin:
imatinib exposure9,18,19,36  
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by clarithromycin:
dasatinib exposure9,18,19  
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by clarithromycin:
nilotinib exposure9,18,19  
    Azithromycin — — — 
    Erythromycin Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by erythromycin:
imatinib exposure9,18,19,36  
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by erythromycin:
dasatinib exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by erythromycin:
↑ nilotinib exposure9,18,19  
Tetracyclines    
    Doxycyclin — — — 
Quinolones    
    Ciprofloxacin • Inhibition of Pgp by ciprofloxacin:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,23,64,70,72  
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG
• Inhibition of Pgp by ciprofloxacin:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,10,52,67,68  
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
    Levofloxacin • Inhibition of Pgp by levofloxacin:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,23,64,70,72 
• Inhibition of hOCT1 by levofloxacine:
↓ imatinib intracellular exposure9,18,64  
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG
• Inhibition of Pgp by levofloxacin:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,10,52,67,68  
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
    Norfloxacin — • ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
Sulfonamides    
    Co-trimoxazole • Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by imatinib:
↑ co-trimoxazole9,18,19  
— • Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by nilotinib:
↑ co-trimoxazole9,18,19  
Azoles    
    Itraconazole Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by itraconazole:
imatinib exposure9,18,19  
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by itraconazole:
dasatinib exposure9,18,19  
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by itraconazole:
nilotinib exposure9,18,19  
    Fluconazole Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by fluconazole:
imatinib exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by fluconazole:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by fluconazole:
↑ nilotinib exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
    Voriconazole Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by voriconazole:
imatinib exposure9,18,19,33  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by voriconazole:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by voriconazole:
↑ nilotinib exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
    Ketoconazole Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by ketoconazole:
imatinib exposure9,18,19,30  
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by ketoconazole:
dasatinib exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by ketoconazole:
↑ nilotinib exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
Allylamine    
    Terbinafine • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2C9 by imatinib:
↑ terbinafine exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ terbinafine exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2C9 by nilotinib:
↑ terbinafine exposure9,18,19  
Nitroimidazole    
    Metronidazole — — — 
Antiviral/nucleoside analog    
    Aciclovir Absence of interaction79  — — 
    Valaciclovir Absence of interaction79  — — 
    Ganciclovir • Inhibition of hOCT1 by ganciclovir:
↓ imatinib intracellular exposure9,18,19  
— — 
    Valganciclovir • Inhibition of hOCT1 by ganciclovir:
↓ imatinib intracellular exposure9,18,19  
— — 
Antimycobacterials    
    Rifampicine Induction of CYP 3A4 by rifampicine:
imatinib exposure9,18,80  
Induction of CYP 3A4 by rifampicine:
dasatinib exposure9,18,19  
Induction of CYP 3A4 by rifampicine:
nilotinib exposure9,18,19  
    Isoniazide — — — 
    Ethambutol — — — 
Protease inhibitors    
    Ritonavir • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by ritonavir:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,19,81  
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by ritonavir:
dasatinib exposure9,18,19,81 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by ritonavir:
↑ nilotinib exposure9,18,19,81 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
    Saquinavir • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by imatinib:
↑ saquinavir exposure9,18,19,81 
• Inhibition of hOCT1 by saquinavir:
↓ imatinib intracellular exposure9,18,64  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ saquinavir exposure9,18,19,81  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by nilotinib:
↑ saquinavir exposure9,18,19,81  
    Darunavir • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by darunavir:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,19,81  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by darunavir:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,19,81  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by darunavir:
↑ nilotinib exposure9,18,19,81  
    Atazanavir • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by imatinib:
↑ atazanavir exposure9,18,19,81  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ atazanavir exposure9,18,19,81  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by nilotinib:
↑ atazanavir exposure9,18,19,81  
    Lopinavir • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by imatinib:
↑ lopinavir exposure9,18,19,81 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by lopinavir/ritonavir*:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,19,81  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ lopinavir exposure9,18,19,81 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by lopinavir/ritonavir*:
↑ dasatinib exposure9.18.19.81  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by nilotinib:
↑ lopinavir exposure9,18,19,81 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by lopinavir/ritonavir*:
↑ nilotinib exposure9,18,19,81  
    Indinavir • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by imatinib:
↑ indinavir exposure9,18,19,81 
• Inhibition of hOCT1 by indinavir:
↓ imatinib intracellular exposure9,18,64  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ indinavir exposure9,18,19,81  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by nilotinib:
↑ indinavir exposure9,18,19,81  
Nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors    
    Lamivudine • Inhibition of hOCT1 by lamivudine:
↓ imatinib intracellular exposure9,18,64  
— — 
    Emtricitabine — — — 
    Zidovudine — — — 
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors    
    Efavirenz • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ efavirenz exposure9,18,19,81 
• Induction of CYP 3A4 by efavirenz:
↓ imatinib exposure9,18,19,81  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ efavirenz exposure9,18,19,81 
• Induction of CYP 3A4 by efavirenz:
↓ dasatinib exposure9,18,19,81  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ efavirenz exposure9,18,19,81 
• Induction of CYP 3A4 by efavirenz:
↓ nilotinib exposure9,18,19,81  
    Nevirapine • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ nevirapine exposure9,18,19,81 
• Induction of CYP 3A4 by nevirapine:
↓ imatinib exposure9,18,19,81  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ nevirapine exposure9,18,19,81 
• Induction of CYP 3A4 by nevirapine:
↓ dasatinib exposure9,18,19,81  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ nevirapine exposure9,18,19,81 
• Induction of CYP 3A4 by nevirapine:
↓ nilotinib exposure9,18,19,81  
    Etravirine • Inhibition of CYP 2C9 and 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ etravirine exposure9,18,19,81 
• Induction of CYP 3A4 by etravirine:
↓ imatinib exposure9,18,19,81  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ etravirine exposure9,18,19,81 
• Induction of CYP 3A4 by etravirine:
↓ dasatinib exposure9,18,19,81  
• Inhibition of CYP 2C9 and 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ etravirine exposure9,18,19,81 
• Induction of CYP 3A4 by etravirine:
↓ nilotinib exposure9,18,19,81  
Antimalarial drugs    
    Quinine • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ quinine exposure9,18,19 
Inhibition of CYP 2D6 and Pgp by quinine:
imatinib exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of hOCT1 by quinine:
↓ imatinib intracellular exposure9,18,64  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ quinine exposure9,18,19 
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
quinine exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ quinine exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
    Chloroquine • Inhibition of Pgp by chloroquine:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of hOCT1 by chloroquine:
↓ imatinib intracellular exposure9,18,64  
• Inhibition of Pgp by chloroquine:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
    Mefloquine • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by imatinib:
↑ mefloquine exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of Pgp by mefloquine:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ mefloquine exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of Pgp by mefloquine:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Ppg by nilotinib:
↑ mefloquine exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
    Proguanil • Inhibition of CYP 2C19 and Pgp by imatinib:
↑ proguanil exposure
↓ proguanil bioactivation9,18,19  
— — 
    Atovaquone — — — 
    Doxycycline — — — 
Part 5. Anti-infectives
ImatinibDasatinibNilotinib
Penicillins    
    Amoxicillin — — — 
    Flucloxacillin — — — 
Cephalosporins    
    Céfuroxime — — — 
    Cefpodoxime — — — 
    Ceftriaxone — — — 
Macrolides    
    Clarithromycin Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by clarithromycin:
imatinib exposure9,18,19,36  
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by clarithromycin:
dasatinib exposure9,18,19  
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by clarithromycin:
nilotinib exposure9,18,19  
    Azithromycin — — — 
    Erythromycin Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by erythromycin:
imatinib exposure9,18,19,36  
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by erythromycin:
dasatinib exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by erythromycin:
↑ nilotinib exposure9,18,19  
Tetracyclines    
    Doxycyclin — — — 
Quinolones    
    Ciprofloxacin • Inhibition of Pgp by ciprofloxacin:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,23,64,70,72  
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG
• Inhibition of Pgp by ciprofloxacin:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,10,52,67,68  
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
    Levofloxacin • Inhibition of Pgp by levofloxacin:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,23,64,70,72 
• Inhibition of hOCT1 by levofloxacine:
↓ imatinib intracellular exposure9,18,64  
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG
• Inhibition of Pgp by levofloxacin:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,10,52,67,68  
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
    Norfloxacin — • ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
Sulfonamides    
    Co-trimoxazole • Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by imatinib:
↑ co-trimoxazole9,18,19  
— • Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by nilotinib:
↑ co-trimoxazole9,18,19  
Azoles    
    Itraconazole Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by itraconazole:
imatinib exposure9,18,19  
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by itraconazole:
dasatinib exposure9,18,19  
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by itraconazole:
nilotinib exposure9,18,19  
    Fluconazole Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by fluconazole:
imatinib exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by fluconazole:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by fluconazole:
↑ nilotinib exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
    Voriconazole Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by voriconazole:
imatinib exposure9,18,19,33  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by voriconazole:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by voriconazole:
↑ nilotinib exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
    Ketoconazole Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by ketoconazole:
imatinib exposure9,18,19,30  
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by ketoconazole:
dasatinib exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by ketoconazole:
↑ nilotinib exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
Allylamine    
    Terbinafine • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2C9 by imatinib:
↑ terbinafine exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ terbinafine exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2C9 by nilotinib:
↑ terbinafine exposure9,18,19  
Nitroimidazole    
    Metronidazole — — — 
Antiviral/nucleoside analog    
    Aciclovir Absence of interaction79  — — 
    Valaciclovir Absence of interaction79  — — 
    Ganciclovir • Inhibition of hOCT1 by ganciclovir:
↓ imatinib intracellular exposure9,18,19  
— — 
    Valganciclovir • Inhibition of hOCT1 by ganciclovir:
↓ imatinib intracellular exposure9,18,19  
— — 
Antimycobacterials    
    Rifampicine Induction of CYP 3A4 by rifampicine:
imatinib exposure9,18,80  
Induction of CYP 3A4 by rifampicine:
dasatinib exposure9,18,19  
Induction of CYP 3A4 by rifampicine:
nilotinib exposure9,18,19  
    Isoniazide — — — 
    Ethambutol — — — 
Protease inhibitors    
    Ritonavir • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by ritonavir:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,19,81  
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by ritonavir:
dasatinib exposure9,18,19,81 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by ritonavir:
↑ nilotinib exposure9,18,19,81 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
    Saquinavir • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by imatinib:
↑ saquinavir exposure9,18,19,81 
• Inhibition of hOCT1 by saquinavir:
↓ imatinib intracellular exposure9,18,64  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ saquinavir exposure9,18,19,81  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by nilotinib:
↑ saquinavir exposure9,18,19,81  
    Darunavir • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by darunavir:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,19,81  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by darunavir:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,19,81  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by darunavir:
↑ nilotinib exposure9,18,19,81  
    Atazanavir • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by imatinib:
↑ atazanavir exposure9,18,19,81  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ atazanavir exposure9,18,19,81  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by nilotinib:
↑ atazanavir exposure9,18,19,81  
    Lopinavir • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by imatinib:
↑ lopinavir exposure9,18,19,81 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by lopinavir/ritonavir*:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,19,81  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ lopinavir exposure9,18,19,81 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by lopinavir/ritonavir*:
↑ dasatinib exposure9.18.19.81  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by nilotinib:
↑ lopinavir exposure9,18,19,81 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by lopinavir/ritonavir*:
↑ nilotinib exposure9,18,19,81  
    Indinavir • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by imatinib:
↑ indinavir exposure9,18,19,81 
• Inhibition of hOCT1 by indinavir:
↓ imatinib intracellular exposure9,18,64  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ indinavir exposure9,18,19,81  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by nilotinib:
↑ indinavir exposure9,18,19,81  
Nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors    
    Lamivudine • Inhibition of hOCT1 by lamivudine:
↓ imatinib intracellular exposure9,18,64  
— — 
    Emtricitabine — — — 
    Zidovudine — — — 
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors    
    Efavirenz • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ efavirenz exposure9,18,19,81 
• Induction of CYP 3A4 by efavirenz:
↓ imatinib exposure9,18,19,81  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ efavirenz exposure9,18,19,81 
• Induction of CYP 3A4 by efavirenz:
↓ dasatinib exposure9,18,19,81  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ efavirenz exposure9,18,19,81 
• Induction of CYP 3A4 by efavirenz:
↓ nilotinib exposure9,18,19,81  
    Nevirapine • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ nevirapine exposure9,18,19,81 
• Induction of CYP 3A4 by nevirapine:
↓ imatinib exposure9,18,19,81  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ nevirapine exposure9,18,19,81 
• Induction of CYP 3A4 by nevirapine:
↓ dasatinib exposure9,18,19,81  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ nevirapine exposure9,18,19,81 
• Induction of CYP 3A4 by nevirapine:
↓ nilotinib exposure9,18,19,81  
    Etravirine • Inhibition of CYP 2C9 and 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ etravirine exposure9,18,19,81 
• Induction of CYP 3A4 by etravirine:
↓ imatinib exposure9,18,19,81  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ etravirine exposure9,18,19,81 
• Induction of CYP 3A4 by etravirine:
↓ dasatinib exposure9,18,19,81  
• Inhibition of CYP 2C9 and 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ etravirine exposure9,18,19,81 
• Induction of CYP 3A4 by etravirine:
↓ nilotinib exposure9,18,19,81  
Antimalarial drugs    
    Quinine • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ quinine exposure9,18,19 
Inhibition of CYP 2D6 and Pgp by quinine:
imatinib exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of hOCT1 by quinine:
↓ imatinib intracellular exposure9,18,64  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ quinine exposure9,18,19 
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
quinine exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ quinine exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
    Chloroquine • Inhibition of Pgp by chloroquine:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of hOCT1 by chloroquine:
↓ imatinib intracellular exposure9,18,64  
• Inhibition of Pgp by chloroquine:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
    Mefloquine • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by imatinib:
↑ mefloquine exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of Pgp by mefloquine:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ mefloquine exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of Pgp by mefloquine:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Ppg by nilotinib:
↑ mefloquine exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
    Proguanil • Inhibition of CYP 2C19 and Pgp by imatinib:
↑ proguanil exposure
↓ proguanil bioactivation9,18,19  
— — 
    Atovaquone — — — 
    Doxycycline — — — 
Part 6. Immunomodulating agents
ImatinibDasatinibNilotinib
Immunosuppressants    
    Ciclosporin Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by imatinib:
ciclosporin exposure37,38 
Inhibition of Pgp and CYP 3A4 by ciclosporin:
imatinib exposure37,38  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ ciclosporin exposure9,18,19,82 
• Inhibition of CYP3A4 and Pgp by ciclosporin:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,19,82  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by nilotinib:
↑ ciclosporin exposure9,18,19,82 
• Inhibition of CYP3A4 by ciclosporin:
↑ nilotinib exposure9,18,19,82  
    Tacrolimus • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ tacrolimus exposure9,18,19,82 
• Inhibition of Pgp by tacrolimus:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,19,82  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ tacrolimus exposure9,18,19,82 
• Inhibition of Pgp by tacrolimus:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,19,82  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by nilotinib:
↑ tacrolimus exposure9,18,19,82  
    Sirolimus • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by imatinib:
↑ sirolimus exposure9,18,19,82  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ sirolimus exposure9,18,19,82  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by nilotinib:
↑ sirolimus exposure9,18,19,82  
    Everolimus • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by imatinib:
↑ everolimus exposure9,18,19,82  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ everolimus exposure9,18,19,82  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by nilotinib:
↑ everolimus exposure9,18,19,82  
    Mycophenolate mofetil — — — 
    Methotrexate — — — 
    Azathioprine — — — 
Part 6. Immunomodulating agents
ImatinibDasatinibNilotinib
Immunosuppressants    
    Ciclosporin Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by imatinib:
ciclosporin exposure37,38 
Inhibition of Pgp and CYP 3A4 by ciclosporin:
imatinib exposure37,38  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ ciclosporin exposure9,18,19,82 
• Inhibition of CYP3A4 and Pgp by ciclosporin:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,19,82  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by nilotinib:
↑ ciclosporin exposure9,18,19,82 
• Inhibition of CYP3A4 by ciclosporin:
↑ nilotinib exposure9,18,19,82  
    Tacrolimus • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ tacrolimus exposure9,18,19,82 
• Inhibition of Pgp by tacrolimus:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,19,82  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ tacrolimus exposure9,18,19,82 
• Inhibition of Pgp by tacrolimus:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,19,82  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by nilotinib:
↑ tacrolimus exposure9,18,19,82  
    Sirolimus • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by imatinib:
↑ sirolimus exposure9,18,19,82  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ sirolimus exposure9,18,19,82  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by nilotinib:
↑ sirolimus exposure9,18,19,82  
    Everolimus • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by imatinib:
↑ everolimus exposure9,18,19,82  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ everolimus exposure9,18,19,82  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by nilotinib:
↑ everolimus exposure9,18,19,82  
    Mycophenolate mofetil — — — 
    Methotrexate — — — 
    Azathioprine — — — 
Part 7. Musculoskeletal system
ImatinibDasatinibNilotinib
NSAIDs    
    Aspirin — Thrombocytopenic effect of dasatinib:
risk of bleeding9,18,19  
— 
    Ibuprofen • Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by imatinib:
↑ ibuprofen exposure9,18,83,84  
• Inhibition of CYP 2C8 by dasatinib:
↑ ibuprofen exposure9,18,83,84  
• Inhibition of CYP 2C8 and 2C9 by nilotinib: ↑ ibuprofen exposure9,18,83,84  
    Mefenacid • Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by imatinib:
↑ mefenacid exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 2C8 by dasatinib:
↑ mefenacid exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 2C8 and 2C9 by nilotinib:
↑ mefenacid exposure9,18,19  
    Metamizole • Induction of CYP 3A4 by metamizole: ↓ imatinib exposure9,18,85  • Induction of CYP 3A4 by metamizole:
↓ dasatinib exposure9,18,85  
• Induction of CYP 3A4 by metamizole:
↓ nilotinib exposure9,18,85  
    Diclofenac • Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by imatinib:
↑ diclofenac exposure9,18,86 
• Inhibition of Pgp by diclofenac:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,86  
• Inhibition of CYP 2C8 by dasatinib:
↑ diclofenac exposure9,18,86 
• Inhibition of Pgp by diclofenac:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,86  
• Inhibition of CYP 2C8 and 2C9 by nilotinib:
↑ diclofenac exposure9,18,86  
Antigout preparations    
    Allopurinol — — — 
Part 7. Musculoskeletal system
ImatinibDasatinibNilotinib
NSAIDs    
    Aspirin — Thrombocytopenic effect of dasatinib:
risk of bleeding9,18,19  
— 
    Ibuprofen • Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by imatinib:
↑ ibuprofen exposure9,18,83,84  
• Inhibition of CYP 2C8 by dasatinib:
↑ ibuprofen exposure9,18,83,84  
• Inhibition of CYP 2C8 and 2C9 by nilotinib: ↑ ibuprofen exposure9,18,83,84  
    Mefenacid • Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by imatinib:
↑ mefenacid exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 2C8 by dasatinib:
↑ mefenacid exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 2C8 and 2C9 by nilotinib:
↑ mefenacid exposure9,18,19  
    Metamizole • Induction of CYP 3A4 by metamizole: ↓ imatinib exposure9,18,85  • Induction of CYP 3A4 by metamizole:
↓ dasatinib exposure9,18,85  
• Induction of CYP 3A4 by metamizole:
↓ nilotinib exposure9,18,85  
    Diclofenac • Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by imatinib:
↑ diclofenac exposure9,18,86 
• Inhibition of Pgp by diclofenac:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,86  
• Inhibition of CYP 2C8 by dasatinib:
↑ diclofenac exposure9,18,86 
• Inhibition of Pgp by diclofenac:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,86  
• Inhibition of CYP 2C8 and 2C9 by nilotinib:
↑ diclofenac exposure9,18,86  
Antigout preparations    
    Allopurinol — — — 
Part 8. Nervous system
ImatinibDasatinibNilotinib
SSRI    
    Fluoxetine • Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ fluoxetine exposure9,18,19,87,88  
• ↑ QT interval9,18,19,87,88  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• ↑ QT interval9,18,19,87,88  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
    Fluvoxamine • Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ fluvoxamine exposure9,18,19  
— • Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ fluvoxamine exposure9,18,19  
    Paroxetine • Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ paroxetine exposure9,18,19  
— • Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ paroxetine exposure9,18,19  
    Citalopram • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ citalopram exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ citalopram exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ citalopram exposure9,18,19  
    Sertraline • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ sertraline exposure9,18,19,87  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ sertraline exposure9,18,19,87  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ sertraline exposure9,18,19,87  
SSNRI    
    Venlafaxine • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ venlafaxine exposure9,18,19,87  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ venlafaxine exposure9,18,19,87 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ venlafaxine exposure9,18,19,87 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
    Duloxetine • Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ duloxetine exposure9,18,19  
— • Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ duloxetine exposure9,18,19  
Tetracyclic agent    
    Mirtazapine • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ mirtazapine exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ mirtazapine exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ mirtazapine exposure9,18,19  
Tricyclic agents    
    Trimipramine • Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ trimipramine exposure9,18,19  
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG
• Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ trimipramine exposure9,18,19  
    Amitriptyline • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ amitriptyline exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ amitriptyline exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval18,19 (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ amitriptyline exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval18,19 (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
Phenothiazines    
    Levomepromazine • Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ levomepromazine exposure9,18,19  
— • Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ levomepromazine exposure9,18,19  
Z-drugs    
    Zolpidem • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ zolpidem exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ zolpidem exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ zolpidem exposure9,18,19  
    Zaleplon • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ zaleplon exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ zaleplon exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ zaleplon exposure9,18,19  
    Zopiclon • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ zopiclon exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ zopiclon exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ zopiclon exposure9,18,19  
Benzodiazepines    
    Alprazolam • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ alprazolam exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ alprazolam exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ alprazolam exposure9,18,19  
    Bromazepam • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ bromazepam exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ bromazepam exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ bromazepam exposure9,18,19  
    Clonazepam • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ clonazepam exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ clonazepam exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ clonazepam exposure9,18,19  
    Oxazepam — — — 
    Lorazepam — — — 
    Diazepam • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ diazepam exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ diazepam exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ diazepam exposure9,18,19  
    Midazolam • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ midazolam exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of Pgp by midazolam:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of hOCT1 by midazolam:
↓ imatinib intracellular exposure9,18,64  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ midazolam exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of Pgp by midazolam:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ midazolam exposure9,18,19  
Barbiturates    
    Phenobarbital • Inhibition of CYP 2C9 and 2C19 by imatinib:
↑ phenobarbital exposure9,18,19 
Induction of CYP 3A4 by phenobarbital:
imatinib exposure9,18,19  
Induction of CYP 3A4 by phenobarbital:
dasatinib exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by nilotinib:
↑ phenobarbital exposure9,18,19 
Induction of CYP 3A4 by phenobarbital:
nilotinib exposure9,18,19  
Antipsychotic agents    
    Haloperidol • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ haloperidol exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ haloperidol exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
    Clozapine • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ clozapine exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ clozapine exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ clozapine exposure9,18,19  
    Olanzapine — — — 
    Risperidone • Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ risperidone exposure9,18,19  
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
Antiseizure drugs    
    Phenytoin Induction of CYP 3A4 by phenytoin:
imatinib exposure9,18,19  
Induction of CYP 3A4 by phenytoin:
dasatinib exposure9,18,19  
Induction of CYP 3A4 by phenytoin:
nilotinib exposure9,18,19  
    Valproic acid • Inhibition of CYP 2C9 and 2C19 by imatinib:
↑ valproic acid exposure
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by valproic acid:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by valproic acid:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by nilotinib:
↑ valproic acid exposure
•Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by valproic acid:
↑ nilotinib exposure9,18,19  
    Carbamazepine Induction of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by carbamazepine:
imatinib exposure9,18,19  
Induction of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by carbamazepine:
dasatinib exposure9,18,19  
Induction of CYP 3A4 by carbamazepine:
nilotinib exposure9,18,19  
    Lamotrigine — — — 
    Gabapentin — — — 
    Topiramate • Induction of CYP 3A4 by topiramate:
↓ imatinib exposure9,18,19  
• Induction of CYP 3A4 by topiramate:
↓ dasatinib exposure9,18,19  
• Induction of CYP 3A4 by topiramate:
↓ nilotinib exposure9,18,19  
    Levetiracetam — — — 
Antimaniac drug    
    Lithium — — — 
Aminoketone    
    Bupropion — — Induction of CYP 2B6 by nilotinib:
bupropion exposure
bupropion bioactivation9,18,19  
Opioids    
    Morphine — — — 
    Tramadol • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ tramadol exposure9,18,19 
↓ tramadol bioactivation9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ tramadol exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ tramadol exposure9,18,19 
↓ tramadol bioactivation9,18,19  
    Methadone • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ methadone exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of Pgp by methadone:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,19  
• ↑QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ methadone exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of Pgp by methadone:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ methadone exposure9,18,19 
Induction of CYP 2B6 by nilotinib:
methadone exposure19 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
    Hydromorphone — — — 
    Oxycodone • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ oxycodone exposure
↓ oxycodone bioactivation9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ oxycodone exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ oxycodone exposure
↓ oxycodone bioactivation9,18,19  
    Buprenorphine • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ buprenorphine exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ buprenorphine exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ buprenorphine exposure9,18,19  
Other    
    Acetaminophen Inhibition of O-glucuronidation by imatinib:
acetaminophen exposure9,18,19,50  
— — 
Antimigraine preparations    
    Dihydroergotamine • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ dihydroergotamine exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ dihydroergotamine exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ dihydroergotamine exposure9,18,19  
    Sumatriptan — — — 
Part 8. Nervous system
ImatinibDasatinibNilotinib
SSRI    
    Fluoxetine • Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ fluoxetine exposure9,18,19,87,88  
• ↑ QT interval9,18,19,87,88  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• ↑ QT interval9,18,19,87,88  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
    Fluvoxamine • Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ fluvoxamine exposure9,18,19  
— • Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ fluvoxamine exposure9,18,19  
    Paroxetine • Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ paroxetine exposure9,18,19  
— • Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ paroxetine exposure9,18,19  
    Citalopram • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ citalopram exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ citalopram exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ citalopram exposure9,18,19  
    Sertraline • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ sertraline exposure9,18,19,87  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ sertraline exposure9,18,19,87  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ sertraline exposure9,18,19,87  
SSNRI    
    Venlafaxine • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ venlafaxine exposure9,18,19,87  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ venlafaxine exposure9,18,19,87 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ venlafaxine exposure9,18,19,87 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
    Duloxetine • Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ duloxetine exposure9,18,19  
— • Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ duloxetine exposure9,18,19  
Tetracyclic agent    
    Mirtazapine • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ mirtazapine exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ mirtazapine exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ mirtazapine exposure9,18,19  
Tricyclic agents    
    Trimipramine • Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ trimipramine exposure9,18,19  
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG
• Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ trimipramine exposure9,18,19  
    Amitriptyline • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ amitriptyline exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ amitriptyline exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval18,19 (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ amitriptyline exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval18,19 (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
Phenothiazines    
    Levomepromazine • Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ levomepromazine exposure9,18,19  
— • Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ levomepromazine exposure9,18,19  
Z-drugs    
    Zolpidem • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ zolpidem exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ zolpidem exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ zolpidem exposure9,18,19  
    Zaleplon • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ zaleplon exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ zaleplon exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ zaleplon exposure9,18,19  
    Zopiclon • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ zopiclon exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ zopiclon exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ zopiclon exposure9,18,19  
Benzodiazepines    
    Alprazolam • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ alprazolam exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ alprazolam exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ alprazolam exposure9,18,19  
    Bromazepam • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ bromazepam exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ bromazepam exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ bromazepam exposure9,18,19  
    Clonazepam • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ clonazepam exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ clonazepam exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ clonazepam exposure9,18,19  
    Oxazepam — — — 
    Lorazepam — — — 
    Diazepam • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ diazepam exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ diazepam exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ diazepam exposure9,18,19  
    Midazolam • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ midazolam exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of Pgp by midazolam:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of hOCT1 by midazolam:
↓ imatinib intracellular exposure9,18,64  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ midazolam exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of Pgp by midazolam:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ midazolam exposure9,18,19  
Barbiturates    
    Phenobarbital • Inhibition of CYP 2C9 and 2C19 by imatinib:
↑ phenobarbital exposure9,18,19 
Induction of CYP 3A4 by phenobarbital:
imatinib exposure9,18,19  
Induction of CYP 3A4 by phenobarbital:
dasatinib exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by nilotinib:
↑ phenobarbital exposure9,18,19 
Induction of CYP 3A4 by phenobarbital:
nilotinib exposure9,18,19  
Antipsychotic agents    
    Haloperidol • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ haloperidol exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ haloperidol exposure9,18,19 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
    Clozapine • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ clozapine exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ clozapine exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ clozapine exposure9,18,19  
    Olanzapine — — — 
    Risperidone • Inhibition of CYP 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ risperidone exposure9,18,19  
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
Antiseizure drugs    
    Phenytoin Induction of CYP 3A4 by phenytoin:
imatinib exposure9,18,19  
Induction of CYP 3A4 by phenytoin:
dasatinib exposure9,18,19  
Induction of CYP 3A4 by phenytoin:
nilotinib exposure9,18,19  
    Valproic acid • Inhibition of CYP 2C9 and 2C19 by imatinib:
↑ valproic acid exposure
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by valproic acid:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by valproic acid:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 2C9 by nilotinib:
↑ valproic acid exposure
•Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by valproic acid:
↑ nilotinib exposure9,18,19  
    Carbamazepine Induction of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by carbamazepine:
imatinib exposure9,18,19  
Induction of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by carbamazepine:
dasatinib exposure9,18,19  
Induction of CYP 3A4 by carbamazepine:
nilotinib exposure9,18,19  
    Lamotrigine — — — 
    Gabapentin — — — 
    Topiramate • Induction of CYP 3A4 by topiramate:
↓ imatinib exposure9,18,19  
• Induction of CYP 3A4 by topiramate:
↓ dasatinib exposure9,18,19  
• Induction of CYP 3A4 by topiramate:
↓ nilotinib exposure9,18,19  
    Levetiracetam — — — 
Antimaniac drug    
    Lithium — — — 
Aminoketone    
    Bupropion — — Induction of CYP 2B6 by nilotinib:
bupropion exposure
bupropion bioactivation9,18,19  
Opioids    
    Morphine — — — 
    Tramadol • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ tramadol exposure9,18,19 
↓ tramadol bioactivation9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ tramadol exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ tramadol exposure9,18,19 
↓ tramadol bioactivation9,18,19  
    Methadone • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ methadone exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of Pgp by methadone:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,19  
• ↑QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ methadone exposure9,18,19 
• Inhibition of Pgp by methadone:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ methadone exposure9,18,19 
Induction of CYP 2B6 by nilotinib:
methadone exposure19 
• ↑ QT interval18,19  (additive effect)
monitor ECG 
    Hydromorphone — — — 
    Oxycodone • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by imatinib:
↑ oxycodone exposure
↓ oxycodone bioactivation9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ oxycodone exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and 2D6 by nilotinib:
↑ oxycodone exposure
↓ oxycodone bioactivation9,18,19  
    Buprenorphine • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ buprenorphine exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ buprenorphine exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ buprenorphine exposure9,18,19  
Other    
    Acetaminophen Inhibition of O-glucuronidation by imatinib:
acetaminophen exposure9,18,19,50  
— — 
Antimigraine preparations    
    Dihydroergotamine • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ dihydroergotamine exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ dihydroergotamine exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by nilotinib:
↑ dihydroergotamine exposure9,18,19  
    Sumatriptan — — — 
Part 9. Respiratory system
ImatinibDasatinibNilotinib
H1-antagonists    
    Cetirizin — — • Inhibition of Pgp by nilotinib:
↑ cetirizin exposure9,18,19  
    Levocetirizin — — • Inhibition of Pgp by nilotinib:
↑ levocetirizin exposure9,17,18  
    Loratadin • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ loratadin exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ loratadin exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of Pgp by nilotinib:
↑ loratadin exposure9,18,19  
    Fexofenadin • Inhibition of Pgp by fexofenadin:
↑ imatinib exposure64  
• Inhibition of Pgp by fexofenadin:
↑ dasatinib exposure64  
• Inhibition of Pgp by nilotinib:
↑ fexofenadin exposure64  
 • Inhibition of Pgp by imatinib:
↑ fexofenadin exposure64  
  
Anti-asthma drugs    
    Salbutamol — — — 
    Theophylline — — — 
Part 9. Respiratory system
ImatinibDasatinibNilotinib
H1-antagonists    
    Cetirizin — — • Inhibition of Pgp by nilotinib:
↑ cetirizin exposure9,18,19  
    Levocetirizin — — • Inhibition of Pgp by nilotinib:
↑ levocetirizin exposure9,17,18  
    Loratadin • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by imatinib:
↑ loratadin exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by dasatinib:
↑ loratadin exposure9,18,19  
• Inhibition of Pgp by nilotinib:
↑ loratadin exposure9,18,19  
    Fexofenadin • Inhibition of Pgp by fexofenadin:
↑ imatinib exposure64  
• Inhibition of Pgp by fexofenadin:
↑ dasatinib exposure64  
• Inhibition of Pgp by nilotinib:
↑ fexofenadin exposure64  
 • Inhibition of Pgp by imatinib:
↑ fexofenadin exposure64  
  
Anti-asthma drugs    
    Salbutamol — — — 
    Theophylline — — — 
Part 10. Miscellaneous
ImatinibDasatinibNilotinib
St John's wort Induction of CYP 3A4 by St John's wort:
imatinib exposure43,44  
Induction of CYP 3A4 by St John's wort:
dasatinib exposure56  
• Induction of CYP 3A4 by St John's wort:
↓ nilotinib exposure9,18  
Grapefruit • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by grapefruit:
↑ imatinib exposure 9,18  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by grapefruit:
↑ dasatinib exposure 9,18  
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by grapefruit:
nilotinib exposure62  
Licorice • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by licorice:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,89  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by licorice:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,89  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by licorice:
↑ nilotinib exposure9,18,89  
Part 10. Miscellaneous
ImatinibDasatinibNilotinib
St John's wort Induction of CYP 3A4 by St John's wort:
imatinib exposure43,44  
Induction of CYP 3A4 by St John's wort:
dasatinib exposure56  
• Induction of CYP 3A4 by St John's wort:
↓ nilotinib exposure9,18  
Grapefruit • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by grapefruit:
↑ imatinib exposure 9,18  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by grapefruit:
↑ dasatinib exposure 9,18  
Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by grapefruit:
nilotinib exposure62  
Licorice • Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by licorice:
↑ imatinib exposure9,18,89  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by licorice:
↑ dasatinib exposure9,18,89  
• Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by licorice:
↑ nilotinib exposure9,18,89  
*

TKIs in general can cause thrombocytopenia, which is usually of no clinical relevance. Please take that into consideration when coadministrating with anticoagulant medication.

PT indicates prothrombin time; INR, international normalized ratio.

*

As lopinavir is co-administered with ritonavir, the net clinical effect observed is inhibition of CYP 3A4 and Pgp by ritonavir, and therefore increase of TKI exposure.

Drug interactions were either clinically documented or derived from mechanistic considerations on proven or putative metabolic pathways, protein binding, and transmembrane transport. When data on a particular combination were unavailable, potential interactions were extrapolated from the reported disposition mechanisms of the agents and of similar substrates.

Interaction with imatinib

Imatinib is metabolized mainly by CYP isoenzyme 3A4, whereas CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A5 are reported to play a minor role in its metabolism.11  This TKI has also been shown to be a substrate of hOCT1, Pgp, and BCRP.9,23–25  However, a controversial report26  suggests that imatinib is an inhibitor rather than a substrate of BCRP, thus leaving uncertainty about the role of this pathway. The metabolites of imatinib are eliminated predominantly through biliary excretion. One metabolite, an N-demethylated piperizine derivative (CGP 74588) shows pharmacologic activity comparable to the parent drug, but the systemic exposure represents ∼ 15% of that for imatinib.13  The fecal-to-urinary excretion ratio is ∼ 5:1. Moreover, imatinib can competitively inhibit the metabolism of drugs that are CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 substrates.13  Imatinib is ∼ 95% bound to human plasma proteins, mainly albumin and α1-acid glycoprotein.11,27–29 

Interactions should therefore be considered when administering inhibitors of the CYP3A family in combination with imatinib. Strong inhibition, such as achieved with ketoconazole, caused a 40% increase of imatinib exposure in healthy volunteers.30  Interactions are likely to occur with other inhibitors of CYP3A4, such as levothyroxine31,32  voriconazole,33  or amiodarone,34  leading to an increase in plasma concentrations of imatinib. Nevertheless, a study suggests that inhibition of CYP3A4 by the potent irreversible inhibitor ritonavir does not result in increased steady-state plasma concentrations of imatinib, possibly because of the induction of compensatory metabolism or transport mechanisms by ritonavir.35 

Concomitant administration of imatinib with inhibitors of both CYP3A4 and Pgp increase not only plasma but also intracellular imatinib concentrations. Dual CYP3A4 and Pgp inhibitors such as verapamil,9  erythromycin,36  clarithromycin,36  ciclosporin,37,38  ketoconazole,30  fluconazole,9,18  and itraconazole9,18  increase intracellular concentrations of imatinib by inhibiting both its metabolism and its efflux by Pgp and might therefore increase its cellular toxicity.

Moreover, inhibition of Pgp by proton pump inhibitors such as pantoprazole was shown to increase brain penetration of imatinib.40  Conversely, another study reported that concomitant administration of a Mg2+-Al3+–based antacid is not associated with meaningful alterations in imatinib absorption.41 

Concomitant administration of CYP3A4 inducers such as rifampicin or certain antiepileptics may lead to a reduction of as much as 74% in imatinib exposure.12,13,42  Moreover, the pharmacokinetic profile of imatinib was significantly altered by St John's wort, with reductions of 30% in the median area under the concentration-time curve (AUC).43,44  Concomitant use of enzyme inducers, including St John's wort, may thus necessitate an increase in imatinib dosages to maintain clinical effectiveness.43,44 

Interactions with quinidine, ranitidine, or midazolam, known inhibitors of hOCT1, may paradoxically increase the circulating concentrations of imatinib but decrease the intracellular exposure of target cancer cells, known to express this carrier.9,25 

With regard to all these mechanisms, it is worth recalling that plasma concentrations of imatinib appear correlated with efficacy and toxicity.29,45–47  A change in imatinib exposure because of a drug interaction might therefore definitely influence its therapeutic efficacy.

TKIs can also inhibit drug transporters and enzymes, leading to changes in the exposure of coadministered drugs. Imatinib enhances the intestinal absorption of ciclosporin, a CYP3A4 and Pgp substrate, and may increase the pharmacologic effects and possibly toxicity of ciclosporin.37,38  Moreover, the clearance of simvastatin (a CYP3A4 substrate) was reduced by 70% when associated with imatinib.13  Administration of imatinib together with metoprolol, a CYP2D6 substrate, resulted in an increase in metoprolol exposure by 23%.13 

Data concerning interactions involving protein binding are poorly documented for imatinib. A study showed that St John's wort does not alter the protein binding of imatinib over a wide range of concentrations in vivo.43,44 

Interactions of potential clinical relevance can occur with calcium channel blockers such as verapamil and diltiazem, substrates of CYP3A4, which circulating levels are increased when associated with imatinib.18,19  Interactions with simvastatin, amiodarone, and quinidine, involving the same P450 isoenzyme, may also be of clinical relevance.9,18,19,48  In patients taking imatinib, such drugs should be either tapered or avoided and replaced by safer alternatives (eg, pravastatin or sotalol).

Imatinib is also known to inhibit the O-glucuronidation of acetaminophen, possibly inducing hepatotoxicity and liver failure.9  The use of acetaminophen should be limited in patients taking imatinib. A limit has been suggested of 1300 mg acetaminophen per day.49  Liver function tests might be useful to monitor during prolonged treatment.50  Acenocoumarol and phenprocoumon, substrates of CYP2C9, show also increased concentrations; however, this interaction can be compensated by the monitoring of prothrombin time or international normalized ratio.9,18,51 

Finally, physicians should be aware that patients with hypothyroid conditions who receive imatinib need increased levothyroxine doses.31,32  The suspected mechanism responsible for this phenomenon is an induction of non–deiodination clearance.31,32  The fraction of levothyroxine that is deiodinated into biologically active triiodothyronine is mainly subject to conjugation with glucuronates and sulfates.31,32  Although the liver primarily mediates glucuronidation and sulfation, these conjugations occur in extrahepatic sites such as the kidney and intestine as well.31,32  Therefore, induction of uridine diphosphate–glucuronyl transferases (UGTs) seems to be involved.31,32  A 2-fold increase in levothyroxine substitution therapy at initiation of imatinib treatment is recommended, along with close monitoring of thyroid function.31,32 

Interaction with dasatinib

Dasatinib is metabolized in an active derivative and other inactive metabolites by the CYP3A4 isoenzyme and was also reported to be a substrate of BCRP and Pgp.9,18,52  The active metabolite appears to play a negligible role in therapeutic activity. Dasatinib has an inhibitory activity against CYP2C8 and CYP3A4. Plasma protein binding is ∼ 96% for dasatinib, mainly to albumin.53,54 

In healthy subjects receiving ketoconazole, systemic exposure (AUC) to dasatinib was increased by 5-fold.39  Interactions may then occur between dasatinib and other inhibitors of CYP3A4, such as levothyroxine31,32  and voriconazole,33  leading to a marked increase in plasma concentrations of this TKI. Drugs that inhibit both BCRP and CYP3A4, such as verapamil,55  may lead to even larger increase in dasatinib exposure.

Inhibitors of both CYP3A4 and Pgp will increase not only plasma but also intracellular concentrations of dasatinib; this is expected for verapamil,9  erythromycin,9,18  clarithromycin,9,18  ciclosporin,38  ketoconazole,39  fluconazole,9,18  and itraconazole.9,18 

Concomitant administration of the CYP3A4 inducer rifampicin leads to a reduction of 80% in dasatinib exposure.12,13,42  St John's wort, a CYP3A4 inducer, may also decrease dasatinib plasma concentrations and should be discouraged in patients receiving dasatinib.56  Antiepileptics (phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine) are expected to decrease dasatinib concentrations as well.

Moreover, the solubility of dasatinib appears to be pH dependent. Dasatinib exposure is reduced by 61% when famotidine is administered before dasatinib dosing.57  As a result, concomitant administration of agents that provide prolonged gastric acid suppression, such as H2 antagonists and proton pump inhibitors, is not recommended.42  In contrast, dasatinib exposure is unchanged when Mg2+-Al3+–based antacids are administered ≥ 2 hours before dasatinib; but coadministration reduced dasatinib exposure by 55%-58%.57 

Dasatinib can also slightly inhibit drug transporters and enzymes, leading to changes in the exposure of coadministered drugs.9,18  The coingestion of dasatinib with simvastatin resulted in a 20% increased exposure to simvastatin.13  Concurrent use with calcium channel blockers such as verapamil and diltiazem, substrates of CYP3A4, should be avoided.18,51 

Studies about interactions involving protein binding were unavailable for dasatinib.

In clinical trials, dasatinib treatment has been associated with prolongation of the QTc interval on electrocardiograms, and sudden cardiac deaths have occurred, which are probably related to ventricular repolarization abnormalities.58,59  Association of QT-prolonging drugs such as digoxin, quinolones, methadone, or several psychotropic medications, may increase the risk of such events by additive effect.9,19  Regular electrocardiographic controls (ECG) are strongly recommended in such situations.58,59 

Interactions with nilotinib

Nilotinib undergoes metabolism by CYP3A4. It is also a substrate of the efflux transporter BCRP.9,23  Nilotinib is known to inhibit CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, UGT1A1, and Pgp. In vitro studies suggest that nilotinib also induces CYP2B6 enzymes.19  Note that UGT1A1 inhibition has been associated with an increase in bilirubin levels (especially in patients homozygous for the UGT1A1*28 reduced-function variant).60  The determination of UGT1A1*28 is therefore approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a valid pharmacogenetic test for patients treated by nilotinib.61  This TKI is ∼ 98% bound to albumin and α1-acid glycoprotein.54 

Nilotinib exposure is expected to increase under CYP3A4 inhibitors. For example, AUC of nilotinib was increased by a 3-fold factor in healthy subjects receiving ketoconazole.12  Moreover, a study showed that concurrent intake of 240 mL of grapefruit juice increased by 60% nilotinib AUC. Concomitant administration of nilotinib with grapefruit juice is therefore not recommended.62 

Conversely, concomitant administration of CYP3A4 inducers such as rifampicin leads to a reduction by a 4.8 factor in nilotinib exposure.12,13,42 

Literature about interactions involving protein binding were lacking for nilotinib.

The same potential clinically significant interactions with imatinib and dasatinib can occur with nilotinib. For example, acenocoumarol and phenprocoumon, substrates of CYP2C9, show increased concentrations, imposing careful monitoring of prothrombin time or international normalized ratio.9  Moreover, as with dasatinib, nilotinib has been associated with prolongation of the QTc interval, and cases of sudden cardiac death have been reported.58,59  Accordingly, nilotinib prescribing information includes a black box warning about the risk of QTc prolongation and sudden death and warns that nilotinib should not be used in patients with hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, or long QT syndrome, either congenital or drug induced.58,59 

Conclusions

Pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, and safety recommendations are best characterized for imatinib, which was the first TKI on the market. The other TKIs, just recently marketed, have so far only a limited documentation about clinically relevant interactions. Their concentration profile might be affected to a more dramatic degree by interactions than imatinib exposure.

The 3 TKIs reviewed are indeed substrates of several drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes. They are also capable of inhibiting drug transporters and enzymes, making their disposition and metabolism rather complex and difficult to predict.

Most of the available pharmacokinetic information is based on information obtained from in vitro experiments, animal studies, drug–drug interaction studies, and studies in healthy volunteers with a single dose of the aimed TKI. These results must be translated into treatment adjustment recommendations for the clinical oncology practice, where these drugs are administered on a daily basis in patients receiving various co-medications. The actual relevance of predicted drug interactions is thus still uncertain. Most of the interactions outlined in Table 1 (except those in boldface) are theoretical and have not been confirmed in clinical studies; therefore, they should only be considered indicative. Further interaction mechanisms may still be unknown at present.

We advise the reader to regularly monitor for updates about this topic. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of TKIs63  should be considered if a drug interaction is suspected, or in case of toxicity, or lack of satisfactory clinical response. Finally, documenting unexpected observations and reporting them to the Pharmacovigilance network is of definite importance.

The publication costs of this article were defrayed in part by page charge payment. Therefore, and solely to indicate this fact, this article is hereby marked “advertisement” in accordance with 18 USC section 1734.

Authorship

Contribution: A.H., N.W., M.A.D., M.M., T.B., and L.A.D. are the sole authors of this review article. A.H. and N.W. wrote the manuscript, which was corrected and edited by M.A.D. and M.M. (for hematology and oncology aspects), and T.B. and L.A.D. (for clinical pharmacology aspects).

Conflict-of-interest disclosure: L.A.D. and T.B. have received unrestricted research grants from Novartis. A.H., N.W., T.B., and L.A.D. have received travel grants from Novartis for participating in international meetings on chronic myeloid leukemia and on Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of TKIs. Work on the cardiovascular drug interactions and TKIs has been done following a request from the Swiss GIST Patients Association (http://www.gastrointestinale-stromatumoren.com/) supported by Novartis.17  The remaining authors declare no competing financial interests.

Correspondence: Laurent A. Decosterd, Division of Clinical Pharmacology – Laboratory, BH18 – Lab 218-226, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, CH-1011 Lausanne, Switzerland; e-mail: laurentarthur.decosterd@chuv.ch.

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