Abstract 924

Background:

Therapy-related myeloid neoplasia (t-MN), including myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia, has been reported at a higher frequency with chlorambucil + fludarabine as compared to fludarabine alone, but has not been rigorously studied in the context of cyclophosphamide as an alkylator agent. The intergroup prospective randomized Phase 3 trial, E2997, compared FC with F alone as initial therapy for patients (pt) with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). FC therapy led to higher complete and overall response rates and longer progression-free survival at the initial analysis (Flinn et al JCO 2007). One rationale for combining F with C is that F can inhibit repair of DNA damage induced by C. FC did cause more myelosuppression that could lead to more long-term effects on myeloid hematopoietic function, including t-MN.

Methods:

E2997 enrolled 278 pts, 141 on FC and 137 on F. These cases were assessed for t-MN by required reporting of these events. Baseline genetic and molecular features of CLL were available through a companion lab correlative trial for 235 pts, 122 on FC and 113 on F.

Results:

With median follow-up of 6.4 yrs, there have been 13 (4.7%) reported cases of t-MN, 9 after FC and 4 after F. By cumulative incidence methodology, adjusting for the competing risk of death, the rates of t-MN at 7 yr are 8.2% after FC and 4.6% after F (p=0.18 by the Gray test). Median age at study entry of the t-MN pts was 60 (range 45–80) yrs vs 61 (range 33–86) yrs among those not reported to have t-MN. Median time from initial therapy to diagnosis of t-MN was 5 (range 0.7–8) yrs and did not differ between FC and F. Ten of 13 affected pts received 6 chemotherapy cycles. Additional therapy prior to occurrence of t-MN was given to only 2 of 9 FC pts, in contrast to 3 of 4 F pts. Thus, t-MN occurred in only 1 pt treated with F and no further therapy vs 7 who received FC and no further therapy. Ten of 12 pts with available cytogenetics at diagnosis of t-MN had an abnormality of chromosome 5 and/or 7, common to alkylating agent-induced t-MN, usually (n=8) with complex karyotype. Of the 9 pts with t-MN after FC, all 7 with available CLL data had lower risk IgVH mutated disease, in contrast to 1 of 4 with t-MN after F and 44% in the entire cohort.

TherapyNt-MNAdditional TherapyIgVH gene
NoYesMutUnMutNT
FC 141 
137 
TherapyNt-MNAdditional TherapyIgVH gene
NoYesMutUnMutNT
FC 141 
137 
Conclusion:

Our analysis suggests that a higher incidence of t-MN has occurred after FC than after F. t-MN after FC occurred most often without additional therapy and in IgVH mutated CLL which is associated with more favorable outcome. The increased incidence of t-MN after FC in this study, usually in the absence of additional treatment, suggests that FC is more leukemogenic than F. This finding emphasizes a need for longer follow-up of toxicity and survival before concluding that FC is preferable to F as the chemotherapy backbone for initial therapy of both low and high risk CLL.

Disclosures:

No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

Author notes

*

Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.