While advanced PV and ET patients at high thrombotic risk are managed primarily with HU, patients who are intolerant or refractory to HU have limited therapeutic options. Identification of a dominant gain-of-function mutation in the JAK2 kinase, V617F, in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), including PV and ET, provided a key rationale for the development of a molecularly targeted therapy for these diseases. Long term follow-up data from an ongoing trial of INCB018424, a selective JAK 1/ JAK 2 inhibitor, in PV and ET patients refractory or intolerant to HU are presented.
Study 18424-256 is an uncontrolled open-label Phase 2 study being conducted at 6 sites in the United States and Italy. An initial 8-week run-in evaluation established 10-mg and 25-mg twice daily as starting doses for expansion cohorts in PV and ET, respectively; dose adjustments for safety and efficacy are allowed so that each subject is titrated to their most appropriate dose. For PV, response is defined based on Hct control in the absence of phlebotomy, improvement or elimination of palpable splenomegaly when present, and normalization of leukocytosis and thrombocytosis. For ET, response is defined based on improvement or normalization of WBC and platelet counts and, when present, elimination of palpable splenomegaly.
After a median follow-up of 15 months (range 8–21), 97% of enrolled subjects achieved Hct control to <45% in the absence of phlebotomy, and all continued to maintain phlebotomy-independence at the time of last follow-up visit. Splenomegaly was present in 74% of subjects at entry: 59% of those achieved ≥ 50% reduction in palpable spleen length, or the spleen became non-palpable with all maintaining spleen response at the time of the last follow-up visit. Leukocytosis > 15×109/L was present in 47% of subjects and improved (≤ 15×109/L) or normalized (≤ upper limit of normal) in 88% and 63%, respectively. Thrombocytosis > 600×109/L was present in 38% of subjects and improved (≤ 600×109/L) or normalized (≤ upper limit of normal) in 92% and 69%, respectively. 59% of subjects achieved phlebotomy independence, resolution of splenomegaly and normalization of leukocytosis and thrombocytosis. 6 patients discontinued therapy (3 due to AEs, 2 withdrew consent, 1 for no response). Grade 3 AEs potentially related to study medication included thrombocytopenia (2 patients), neutropenia (1), renal tumor (1), asthenia (1), viral infection (1), and atrial flutter (1). No Grade 4 drug-related AEs have occurred.
After a median follow-up of 15 months (range 4–21), 49% of enrolled subjects normalized platelet counts to ≤ upper limit of normal after a median of 0.5 months and for a median duration of 3.5 months. 82% maintained platelet counts < 600×109/L, for a median duration of 9.8 months. Of 14 patients with baseline platelet counts > 1000×109/L, 13 have experienced > 50% reduction. 88% maintained normal WBC (median duration 14.5 months). Palpable spleens resolved in 3 of 4 subjects; 1 reduced >50% from baseline. 49% of subjects achieved normalization of WBC and platelet counts in the presence of non-palpable splenomegaly. 9 patients discontinued therapy (4 due to AEs, 2 withdrew consent, 3 for no response). Grade 3 AEs potentially related to study medication included leukopenia (2 patients), GI disorder (1), and peripheral neuropathy (1). No Grade 4 drug-related AEs have occurred. Both patient groups demonstrated reductions in patient-reported symptom scores for pruritus, night sweats, and bone pain. Of 26 PV patients reporting pruritus at baseline (median score of 6 on a 10-point scale), 24 reported scores of 0 after a median duration of 1 month and for a median duration of 7 months. 42% of PV and 56% of ET patients had at least a 20% decrease in JAK2V617F allele burden; 6% of PV and 12% of ET had >50% decrease. Clinical responses were unrelated to the presence/absence of JAK2V617F mutation at entry or to the allele burden changes following treatment.
Rapid and durable clinical benefits (normalization of hematological parameters, resolution of splenomegaly and alleviation of symptoms) have been demonstrated in advanced PV and ET patients with >1 year of follow-up. In this study, INCB018424 continues to be a well tolerated, effective therapy in patients with PV and ET refractory or intolerant to hydroxyurea.
Verstovsek:Incyte Corporation: Research Funding. Levy:Incyte Corporation: Employment, Equity Ownership. Bradley:Incyte Corporation: Employment. Garrett:Incyte Corporation: Employment. Vaddi:Incyte corporation: Employment. Huber:Incyte Corporation: Employment, Equity Ownership. Schacter:Pfizer Corporation: Employment. Vannucchi:Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.