The ETV6 gene (formerly TEL) is located in the chromosomal band 12p13 and is a frequent target of deletions and chromosomal translocations in both myeloid and lymphoid leukemias. In ALL the most frequent partner gene of ETV6 is RUNX1. ALL with ETV6-RUNX1 fusions are observed in 20% of childhood ALL and are associated with favorable outcome. In contrast ETV6 rearrangements are less frequent and not well described in myeloid malignancies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze ETV6 rearrangements in myeloid malignancies with respect to frequency, partner genes and impact on prognosis.
55 cases with ETV6 rearrangements were identified in a total cohort of 9,550 cases (0.5%) with myeloid malignancies (de novo AML: n=3,090, s-AML: 486, t-AML: 222, MDS: n=3,375, MDS/MPN overlap: n=210, CMML: n=447, MPN: n=1,720) which had been sent to our laboratory between 08/2005 and 07/2010 for diagnostic work-up. In all cases chromosome banding analysis was performed and in cases with abnormalities involving 12p13 FISH was carried out in addition to verify the ETV6 rearrangement.
ETV6 rearrangements were observed in 31 patients with de novo AML (1.0% of investigated cases), 8 with s-AML (1.7%), 5 with t-AML (2.3%), 6 with MDS (0.2%) and 5 with MPN (0.3%). No ETV6 rearrangements were detected in the cohorts of MDS/MPN or CMML. ETV6 rearrangements were significantly more frequent in s-AML and t-AML as compared to de novo AML (p<0.001). Median age in AML was 59.9 years. In 15 cases with de novo AML FAB-subtypes were available: M0: n=8, M1: n=4, M2: n=1, M4: n=1, and M7: n=1. Thus, ETV6 rearrangements are closely related to immature AML subtypes. In 25/55 cases (45.5%) the ETV6 rearrangement was the sole abnormality. Recurrent additional abnormalities were 7q-/-7 in 10 cases and del(5q) in 8 cases. 36 different partners of ETV6 were observed, recurrent partners were located on 3q26 (EVI1, n=11), 5q33 (PDGFRB, n=4), 22q12 (n=3), 2q31 (n=2), 5q31 (ACSL6, n=2), 12p12 (n=2), 17q11 (n=2). Molecular analysis was performed in addition in AML with ETV6 rearrangements for mutations in NPM1 (n=26 investigated), FLT3-ITD (n=33), FLT3-TKD (n=11), MLL-PTD (n=25) and RUNX1 (n=7). NPM1-mutations were observed in 5 cases (19.2%), FLT3-ITD in 3 cases (9.1%), FLT3-TKD in 2 cases (18.2%), MLL-PTD in 1 case (4%) and RUNX1 mutations in 4 cases (57.1%), respectively. Clinical follow-up data was available of 47 cases. No differences in overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were observed in cases with ETV6 rearrangement whether or not additional cytogenetic abnormalities or 7q-/-7 or del(5q) were present. Next 30 de novo AML with ETV6 rearrangement were compared to 819 AML without ETV6 rearrangement. Based on cytogenetics cases were assigned into 9 subgroups: 1) t(15;17)(q22;q21), n=48; 2) t(8;21)(q22;q22), n=29; 3) inv(16)(p13q22)/t(16;16)(p13;q22), n=19; 4) 11q23/MLL abnormalities, n=28; 5) inv(3)(q21q26)/t(3;3)(q21;q26), n=6; 6) normal karyotype, n=424; 7) complex karyotype, n=71; 8) other abnormalities, n=194 and 9) ETV6 rearrangements, n=30. Median OS was not reached for groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 and was 10.6 mo, 11.8 mo, 32.2 and 26.3 mo for groups 5, 7, 8, and 9 respectively. OS at 2 yrs was 95.6%, 96.3%, 76.6%, 64.9%, 26.7%, 63.3%, 23.9%, 58.5% and 60.1% for groups 1–9, respectively. The respective data for median EFS were: not reached for groups 1 and 2 and 15.9 mo, 13.5 mo, 5.1 mo, 16.6 mo, 7.5 mo, 12.5 mo and 14.0 mo for groups 3–9, respectively.
ETV6 rearrangements are rare in myeloid malignancies. ETV6 is rearranged with a large variety of partner genes. The highest frequency of ETV6 rearrangements was observed in s-AML and t-AML. OS and EFS of AML with ETV6 rearrangements are comparable to AML with normal karyotype. Thus, the detection of ETV6 rearrangements is associated with in intermediate prognosis.
Haferlach:MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory: Employment, Equity Ownership. Schnittger:MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory: Employment, Equity Ownership. Kern:MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory: Employment, Equity Ownership. Haferlach:MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory: Employment, Equity Ownership.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.