We recently demonstrated that the Gla-domain-dependent interaction of protein C with endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) leads to dissociation of the receptor from caveolin-1 and recruitment of PAR-1 to a protective signaling pathway. Thus, the activation of PAR-1 by either thrombin or PAR-1 agonist peptide elicited a barrier protective response if endothelial cells were pre-incubated with protein C. In this study, we examined whether other vitamin K-dependent coagulation protease zymogens can modulate PAR-dependent signaling responses in endothelial cells. We discovered that the activation of both PAR-1 and PAR-2 in endothelial cells pretreated with factor FX (FX)-S195A, but not other procoagulant protease zymogens, also results in initiation of protective intracellular responses. Interestingly, similar to protein C, FX interaction with endothelial cells leads to dissociation of EPCR from caveolin-1 and recruitment of PAR-1 to a protective pathway. Further studies revealed that, FX activated by factor VIIa on tissue factor bearing endothelial cells, also initiates protective signaling responses through the activation of PAR-2 independent of EPCR mobilization. All results could be recapitulated by the receptor agonist peptides to both PAR-1 and PAR-2. These results suggest that a crosstalk between EPCR and an unknown FX/FXa receptor, which does not require interaction with the Gla-domain of FX, recruits PAR-1 to protective signaling pathways in endothelial cells.
No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.