Abstract

Abstract 1147

Factor XIa (FXIa) activates FIX and is regulated by platelet-secreted protease nexin 2 (PN2) that contains a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor (KPI) domain. Trypsin is regulated by basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). The primary and tertiary structures of trypsin and the catalytic domain of FXIa are highly homologous, and KPI and BPTI are nearly identical structurally. We have previously identified two loop structures (loops 1 and 2) in the KPI domain of PN2 that interact with residues in the FXIa catalytic domain. Based on the structure of the FXIa/KPI complex crystal structure, residues within loops 1 and 2 were mutated for experiments examining the inhibition of FXIa and trypsin.

Inhibitor FXIa Trypsin 
 Ki [nM] 
PN2KPI 0.81 0.026 
PN2KPI -P13A (P3 site, loop 1) 2.96* 0.048* 
PN2KPI -R15A (P1 site, loop 1) NI NI 
PN2KPI -R15K (P1 site, loop 1) 11.3* 0.047* 
PN2KPI -M17A (P2′ site, loop 1) 0.8¤ 0.054* 
PN2KPI -S19A (P4′ site, loop 1) 0.93¤ 0.024¤ 
PN2KPI -R20A (P5′ site, loop 1) 2.83* 0.041* 
PN2KPI -F34A (loop 2) 4.92* 0.088* 
BPTI 627* 0.072* 
BPTI-K15R (P1 site, loop 1) 4.1** 0.016** 
Inhibitor FXIa Trypsin 
 Ki [nM] 
PN2KPI 0.81 0.026 
PN2KPI -P13A (P3 site, loop 1) 2.96* 0.048* 
PN2KPI -R15A (P1 site, loop 1) NI NI 
PN2KPI -R15K (P1 site, loop 1) 11.3* 0.047* 
PN2KPI -M17A (P2′ site, loop 1) 0.8¤ 0.054* 
PN2KPI -S19A (P4′ site, loop 1) 0.93¤ 0.024¤ 
PN2KPI -R20A (P5′ site, loop 1) 2.83* 0.041* 
PN2KPI -F34A (loop 2) 4.92* 0.088* 
BPTI 627* 0.072* 
BPTI-K15R (P1 site, loop 1) 4.1** 0.016** 
*

Compared with PN2KPI, difference significant (P<0.001).

¤

Compared with PN2KPI, difference not significant (P>0.5).

*

Compared with BPTI, difference significant (P<0.001).

Results show that the loop-1-region P1 site residue Arg15 of PN2KPI plays a major role in FXIa inhibition by protruding into the S1 specificity pocket of FXIa. Ala mutation at this site renders PN2KPI non-inhibitory for both FXIa and trypsin. BPTI has Lys15 at the P1 site. BPTI inhibits both FXIa and trypsin significantly less effectively than PN2KPI. PN2KPI-R15K lost FXIa inhibitory activity, whereas BPTI-K15R substantially gained affinity for FXIa. Like FXIa, trypsin preferred BPTI-K15R showing a significant enhancement in affinity. Thus, a major determinant of the inhibitory activity of PN2KPI and BPTI against FXIa and trypsin is the P1 residue, with Arg being preferred over Lys for both inhibitors and both proteases. In addition, loop 1 residues Pro13 and Arg20 make important contributions to both FXIa and trypsin inhibition as demonstrated by significantly elevated Ki values for Ala mutations (P13A, and R20A) at these sites. In contrast, Ser19 makes no significant contribution to inhibition of either FXIa or trypsin whereas Met17 makes a significant contribution to the inhibition of trypsin, but not FXIa. In loop 2, only Phe34 is identified as a residue making significant contributions to the inhibition of both FXIa and trypsin, since the PN2KPI-F34A mutant displayed reduced inhibitory activity for both FXIa (6-fold) and for trypsin (3-fold). To rationalize these findings, we examined the crystal structures of the FXIa(catalytic domain)/PN2KPI complex, and the trypsin/BPTI complex. Structurally, the PN2KPI loop-1, P1-site residue Arg15 makes a complex primary interaction with Asp189 of both FXIa and trypsin. Disruption of this site by R15A mutation renders PN2KPI non-inhibitory because it preempts salt bridge interactions from two nitrogen atoms of the guanidinium group of Arg15 with Asp189 and Gly218 in FXIa. In addition, the Arg15 carbonyl oxygen forms hydrogen bonds with main-chain nitrogen atoms of one of the catalytic triad residues, Ser195, and with Gly193. The other important interaction in FXIa/PN2KPI or trypsin/BPTI is hydrophobic, between PN2KPI-Phe34 and FXIa-Tyr143 and between BPTI-Val34 and trypsin-Tyr151. This intermolecular interaction is further strengthened by an intramolecular interaction in which the side chain of Phe34 packs closely with the side chain of Met17 within PN2KPI, altogether forming a strong hydrophobic patch in FXIa-PN2KPI and trypsin-PN2KPI. PN2KPI-F34A disrupts both inter- and intramolecular hydrophobic interactions, leading to discernable reductions in affinity for both FXIa and trypsin. Despite occupying extreme positions in the autolysis loops, (143YRKLRDKI151 in FXIa and 143NTKSSGTSY151 in trypsin), Tyr143/151 residues still orient themselves in close proximity to Phe34. Thus, loop-1 residues of PN2KPI establish complex ionic interactions that play a major role, which is supplemented by the loop-2 residue, Phe34 (in PN2KPI) or Val34 (in BPTI), which establish hydrophobic interactions with residues in FXIa and trypsin leading to very high-affinity enzyme-inhibitor complexes.

Disclosures:

No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

Author notes

*

Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.