Oral mucositis is a common complication of high-dose chemotherapy and radiotherapy followed by hematopoietic stem-cell support (HSCT). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of calcium phosphate mouth rinse (Caphosol) for prevention and reduction of severity and duration of oral mucositis in patients treated with HSCT.
In 2009 23 patients were treated. Three received allogeneic stem cells (ALLO): 2- Hodgkin disease (HD), 1-myeloma multiplex (MM) and twenty autologous transplantation (AUTO): 8-non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL); 7- HD; 3-MM. For ALLO conditioning regimens were composed of: fludarabine 150mg/m 2 and melphalan 140mg/m 2. AUTO were treated with: BEAM: carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine and melphalan (HD and NHL) and melphalan 200mg/m 2 (MM). The source of hematopoietic stem cells was peripheral blood. Caphosol was prepared according to the manufacturer‘s instructions and administered 4 times daily, starting from the day before the beginning of chemotherapy till the end of hospitalization. Control group was composed of patients, who had been treated with HSCT previously, before “palifermin and caphosol era”. The groups were comparable according to number of patients, their age, type of disease, transplant and conditioning regimen. Oral mucositis was assessed with the use of the five-grade World Health Organization (WHO) oral-toxicity scale. Oral mucositis was evaluated daily after the beginning of transplantation procedure until discharge from the BMT Unit. The number of days with painkillers or antibiotics were estimated. Total parenteral nutrition was given according to the standards [Martin-Salces M, De Paz R, Canales MA et al (2008) Nutritional recommendations in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Nutrition 24: 769-775]. Treatment with antibiotics was started when neutropenic fever occurred. Safety was assessed on the basis of the incidence of adverse events. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon‘ test for analysis of differences between groups.
Oral mucositis grade 2-4 was not observed. In patients treated with calcium phosphate mouth rinse oral mucositis grade 2-4 was not observed. Nobody had to receive opioid analgesics or total parenteral nutrition. 30% patients developed the first degree of oral mucositis 4-5 days' duration. In the control group OM was observed in all cases, 50% patients had III- IV degree. Median duration of OM was 10 and 12 days (range 5- 20) for auto- and allogeneic patients, respectively. As compared with control group, treatment with calcium phosphate mouth rinse was associated with significant reduction of the incidence of oral mucositis in II- IV degrees (0 percent versus 50 percent, p < 0.001), duration of oral mucositis (4/ 5 days vs. 10/12 days, p < 0.001), duration of pain-killers‘ treatment (0- 22 days vs. 0- 3 days, p < 0.001) and number of days with antibiotics‘ treatment (0- 7 days vs. 7- 20 days, p= 0.002). These differences were observed in both types of transplantation. No side effects of calcium/phosphate oral rinse were observed.
In comparison with control group, treatment with Caphosol was associated with the significant reduction of the incidence of oral mucositis in II- IV degrees, duration of oral mucositis, pain-killers‘ treatment and number of days with antibiotics‘ treatment. Calcium phosphate mouth rinse is a very promising medicine for prevention of oral mucositis for patients treated with high dose chemotherapy supported with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.