Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) are the preferred graft type for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and mobilization is typically done using growth factor (GF) alone or a combination of chemotherapy (CTX) and GF. The success of mobilization is influenced by several factors such as prior therapy, mobilization strategy, underlying disease, among others. Patients (Pts) failing to mobilize successfully often have GF dose increased and if unsuccessful, mobilization is reattempted with chemotherapy + GF or G-CSF (Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating factor) + GM-CSF (Granulocyte–Macrophage Colony-Stimulating factor). More recently, plerixafor, a CXCR4 inhibitor, has been found to enhance G-CSF based collection allowing potential early intervention in poor mobilizers. However, this approach requires valid cut-points for peripheral CD34 counts (pCD34) for cost efficient use.
We studied 656 first time, G-CSF based PBSC mobilizers with Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (562; 86%), or Hodgkin's Disease (94; 14%). Salvage attempts were excluded, as were first attempts using CTX+GCSF, plerixafor or GF combinations. Sensitivity-specificity analysis (Receiver operating characteristic) was used to define ideal cut-points for predefined outcomes. We used a CD34 yield of 2 million/kg as the minimum required collection and 5 million/kg as the ideal collection for the current analysis. Our current practice is to initiate collection at a pCD34 of 10/uL.
We first determined the best day 1 pCD34 cutoff for being able to collect at least 2 million/kg PBSC to be 9/uL. Among those with ≥9/uL, only 6.6 % failed to collect at least 2 million compared to 55% among the rest (P < 0.001). These numbers were 6.3% and 50% respectively using the traditional cutoff of 10/uL. We then examined how the pCD34 on day 2 predicted collection, among those failing to reach the current threshold of 10/uL. Among this group, a pCD34 on day 2 of 9.1/uL was the best cutoff to predict a collection of 2 million/kg. Among those with >=9.1/uL, only 22% failed to collect at least 2 million compared to 79% among the rest (P < 0.001). Among those with day 1 pCD34 < 10, 49% achieved a count of 9.1/uL on day 2. We then examined what pCD34 on day 1 can best predict a pCD34 ≥ 9.1 on day 2 and found this to be 5.2/uL. Among those with day 1 pCD34 ≥ 5.2/uL, 79% reached day 2 pCD34 ≥ 9.1 compared to 24% among the rest (P < 0.001).
We then determined cutoffs based on ideal targets using only those patients achieving pCD34 count > 10/uL by day 2, since these patients would have started collection without any change in the mobilization technique. We used a maximum of 5 collections to achieve the goal as being ideal, taking into account the most commonly used practice of collecting during weekdays. We examined cutoffs for a target of 5 million/kg for one transplant. The best day 1 or day 2 pCD34 predicting a 5 million/kg yield in 5 collections was 17/uL. Among those with day 1or 2 pCD34 ≥ 17/uL, 4% failed to reach 5 million in ≤ 5 days compared to 96% among the rest (P < 0.001).
This study provides an estimate of optimal pCD34 count thresholds for early identification of patients with lymphoma at high risk of collection failure. It is reasonable to use the first or second day pCD34 count, since a substantial proportion of patients will achieve the threshold value by day 2 and these patients appear to have similar outcome as those reaching the threshold by day 1. Based on the results here, interventions such as addition of plerixafor can be considered if pCD34 count is < 6/uL on day 1 or < 10/uL by day 2, to achieve the minimum collection of 2 million/kg. However, in order to achieve the ideal targets, a higher threshold should be considered and the recommendation based on the current study would be 17/uL for a target of 5 million. Such a target-adapted strategy may be more appropriate.
Kumar:Celgene,Genzyme,Millenium,Novartis,Bayer,: Honoraria, Research Funding. Gertz:Genzyme: Research Funding. Micallef:Genzyme: Research Funding.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.