Poster Board III-87
Phosphatidylserine (PS) can support coagulant reactions. However, it is uncertain how the location and extent of PS exposure to the membranes of stored platelets affect such reactions. We compared annexin V with lactadherin as a way of detecting how of PS exposure influences the procoagulant properties of stored platelets in platelet concentrates (PCs).
PS exposure and the relevant procoagulant activity (PCA) of platelets in 5 different PCs were investigated by flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, coagulation time analysis and enzymatic assays. PS exposure was separately measured using annexin V and lactadherin, respectively.
Exposure of PS to stored platelets promoted thrombin formation. A progressive increase in PS exposure was detected by flow cytometry. Moreover, using lactadherin, we identifed higher levels of PS exposure on the platelets and platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs) compared to detection using annexin V. The percentage of PS-positive cells was 0.02 % by annexin V versus 0.3 % by lactadherin on day 0, 7.5 % by annexin V versus 12.3 % by lactadherin on day 5, and 29 % by annexin V versus 44.3 % by lactadherin on day 9. Rare microparticles (MPs) were released from fresh platelets, and, the number of PMPs increased approximately 2-fold on day 5 and further progressively increased. Using lactadherin and platelets in the earlier stage of storage, confocal microscopy revealed earlier and localized PS exposure based on plasma membrane staining. For later storage platelets, increased levels of PS-positive platelets and PMPs were clearly detected by both annexin V and lactadherin. Thirty-two nM lactadherin or annexin V prolonged coagulation time 2.4 fold versus 2 fold. The productions of thrombin and intrinsic/extrinsic factor Xase were approximately inhibited 85 % and 60 % by lactadherin and annexin V, respectively.
PS exposure was localized to the cellular rims, blebbing vesicles and thin elongated filopodia-like areas on banked platelets. Furthermore, lactadherin provides a more accurate measurement of PS exposure and the relevant with PCA, which is an important factor to consider for transfusion medicine. Our findings of elevated PS-positive platelets and PMPs indicate that platelets should not be stored for extended periods of time.
No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.