Poster Board II-624
Multidrug resistance and expression of the ATP-dependent drug transporting protein ABCB1 is a clinically relevant problem in the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ABCB1 have been associated with altered P-glycoprotein expression and phenotype. These SNPs might influence the clinical outcome in AML and predict individual differences in response to therapy with ABCB1 substrates.
To investigate the impact of the ABCB1 SNPs in exon 11, 12, 21 and 26 on treatment response, survival and in vitro drug sensitivity in AML patients.
PCR and Pyrosequencing were used to determine the genotype of the SNPs G1199T/A, C1236T, A1308G, G2677T/A and C3435T in 100 de novo AML patients with normal karyotype treated at Linköping University Hospital or Karolinska University Hospital. Almost all patients were treated with one anthracycline and Ara-C during the induction regime. The affect of the genetic variants in ABCB1 on survival were analysed by Kaplan-Meier Log-rank tests and multivariant analysis by Cox regression. Patients receiving transplantation were censored at that point in the analysis. A Nordic reference material of 400 healthy volunteers of equal age and sex distribution was also included. NPM1 and FLT3-ITD mutations were determined by PCR. Leukemic cells were isolated and drug sensitivity was measured after 4 days culturing by a bioluminescence ATP-assay.
The survival of the AML patients was significantly correlated to the ABCB1 genotypes C1236T (P=0.02) and G2677T (P=0.02), with a borderline significance for G1199A (p=0.06). For the C1236T SNP the mean survival was 0.7, 1.3 and 1.8 years for the wild type, heterozygous and homozygous variants, respectively. The mean survival for patients with G/G, G/T and T/T genotype of SNP G2677T/A was 0.7, 1.2 and 1.7 years, respectively. Only the wild type of A1308T was found in the material and C3435T did not correlate to survival. Multivariate analysis showed that 1236T/T and 2677T/T were independent factors for survival (hazard ratio 0.24 and 0.22). Comparison of allele frequencies between AML patients and healthy volunteers showed no significant difference. In vitro testing showed that leukemic cells from patients carrying 1236T/T or 2677T/T were significantly more susceptible for mitoxantrone and borderline susceptible to daunorubicine and etoposide, substrates for Pgp but not to Ara-C.
Our findings suggest that ABCB1 SNPs do not affect the development of the disease but the survival after chemotherapy possibly by impact on drug sensitivity. The correlation between ABCB1 genotype and the overall survival of AML patients might provide useful information for treatment strategies and individualized chemotherapy.
Paul:Aprea AB: Consultancy, Research Funding.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.