Abstract

Abstract 2423

Poster Board II-400

BACKGROUND:

Eltrombopag (PROMACTA®; GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA, USA), an oral, small molecule, thrombopoietin receptor agonist, was recently approved in the United States for the treatment of patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Limited published data indicate that patients with chronic ITP experience thromboembolic events (TEEs) with a frequency of 3% to 6%. (Aledort, Am J Hematol, 2004; Bennett, Haematologica, 2008).

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the incidence of TEEs in patients with chronic ITP treated with eltrombopag and to determine if the occurrence of TEEs was associated with elevated platelet counts.

METHODS:

Data from 446 patients from 3 placebo-controlled eltrombopag studies (TRA100773A, TRA100773B, and RAISE) and 2 open-label studies (REPEAT and EXTEND) were analyzed. The frequency of TEEs or suspected TEEs before and after the first dose of study medication (placebo or eltrombopag) was examined across the program. Potential risk factors, including platelet counts proximal to the event, were evaluated in patients experiencing a TEE.

RESULTS:

Prior to the initiation of study medication (placebo or eltrombopag), 16/493 (3.2%) of the patients entering the program had a history of TEEs (one of these patients experienced 2 additional TEEs [TIA, MI] while on treatment with eltrombopag). Across the ITP clinical program, 17/446 patients treated with eltrombopag (3.8%) experienced 22 TEEs. No patient treated with placebo experienced a TEE. The patient-years (PYs) of exposure to study medication was approximately 14 times greater for patients treated with eltrombopag compared to placebo (eltrombopag 377 PYs; placebo 26 PYs). Most patients (13/17) experienced 1 TEE; 3 patients experienced 2, and 1 patient experienced 3 (2 TEEs were 6 months off-therapy). The most common TEEs were deep vein thrombosis (n=8) and pulmonary embolism (n=6). A total of 18/22 events were resolved or resolving at the time of this analysis; all patients experiencing a TEE had at least 1 risk factor for these events other than ITP (eg, use of IVIg [n=3], hospitalization with no prophylactic anticoagulation [n=4], oral corticosteroids [n=6]). The platelet counts proximal to the event ranged from 14,000/μL to 420,000/μL. The majority of patients had platelet counts below 150,000/μL (9; 53%) or between 150,000/μL and 400,000/μL (5; 29%); 2 had platelet counts above 400,000/μL and the platelet count in 1 was unknown. All 446 patients were categorized by the maximum platelet count achieved during treatment with eltrombopag (above normal [>400,000/μL], normal range [150–400,000/μL], below normal range [<150,000/μ]; Table 1). The majority of patients (14; 82%) experienced the TEEs at a platelet count lower than their maximum platelet count, while 3 patients (18%) experienced a TEE proximal to their maximum platelet count.

CONCLUSION:

TEEs occurred with eltrombopag. None occurred with placebo; however, the PYs of exposure was considerably less with placebo than with eltrombopag. The frequency of TEEs observed during eltrombopag treatment (3.8%) is similar to that reported in the literature and prior to enrollment in the eltrombopag program (3.2%). No discernible correlation has been observed between platelet count increases and TEEs, and these events do not appear to be associated with maximum platelet counts during treatment with eltrombopag.

Table 1.

Maximum On-Treatment Platelet Count and Occurrence of TEEs

 Patients Maximum Platelet Count Range N=446a 
Patients Above Normal (>400 Gi/L) N=79 Normal (150-400 Gi/L) N=194 Below Normal (<150 Gi/L) N=171 
With a TEE, n (%) 6 (8) 6 (3) 5 (3) 
TEEs at maximum platelet count, n (%) 1 (1) 1 (<1) 1 (<1) 
 Patients Maximum Platelet Count Range N=446a 
Patients Above Normal (>400 Gi/L) N=79 Normal (150-400 Gi/L) N=194 Below Normal (<150 Gi/L) N=171 
With a TEE, n (%) 6 (8) 6 (3) 5 (3) 
TEEs at maximum platelet count, n (%) 1 (1) 1 (<1) 1 (<1) 

TEEs, thromboembolic events.

a

Two subjects had an unknown maximum platelet count

Disclosures:

Bussel:Sysmex: Research Funding; Eisai, Inc: Research Funding; Ligand: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Immunomedics: Research Funding; Amgen: Equity Ownership, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Cangene: Research Funding; GlaxoSmithKline: Equity Ownership, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Genzyme: Research Funding; Scienta: Speakers Bureau; Shionogi: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Cheng:GlaxoSmithKline: Research Funding. Saleh:GlaxoSmithKline: Speakers Bureau; Amgen: Speakers Bureau. Vasey:GlaxoSmithKline: Employment. Aivado:GlaxoSmithKline: Employment. Brainsky:GlaxoSmithKline: Employment.

Author notes

*

Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.