Abstract

Abstract 127

Two- and three-drug regimens incorporating bortezomib (Velcade®, Vc), lenalidomide (Revlimid®, Rev), dexamethasone (Dex), and cyclophosphamide (Cy) (Vc–Dex, Rev–Dex, Vc–Dex–Rev [VDR], and Vc–Dex–Cy [VDC]), have been shown to be effective and well tolerated in previously untreated multiple myeloma (MM). Combining Vc and Dex with Rev and Cy in a novel four-drug regimen (VDCR) may result in even greater activity with improved quality and duration of response. Results from the phase 1 dose-escalation portion of the multi-center EVOLUTION study showed that the VDCR regimen is a highly active and generally well-tolerated induction therapy in previously untreated MM patients (pts). Here we report the efficacy and safety of VDR, VDC, and VDCR from the non-comparative phase 2 portion of the study. Methods: Pts were randomized to receive up to eight 21-d cycles of VDR (Vc 1.3 mg/m2 d 1, 4, 8, 11; Dex 40 mg d 1, 8, 15; Rev 25 mg d 1–14) or VDC (VD as in VDR, plus Cy 500 mg/m2 d 1, 8) or VDCR (VDC plus Rev 15 mg d 1–14) as induction therapy, followed by Vc 1.3 mg/m2 (d 1, 8, 15, 22) for four 42-d maintenance cycles in all treatment arms. Pts received prophylactic antibiotics, acyclovir, transfusion support, and anticoagulants as required. Eligible pts wishing to undergo autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) could undergo stem cell mobilization any time after cycle 2, and undergo ASCT any time after cycle 4. Response categories were based on the IMWG Criteria with the addition of near complete response (nCR). Adverse events (AEs) were graded using the CTCAE v3.0. Results: In the VDR, VDC, and VDCR arms 42, 32, and 43 pts (including 6 pts treated at the maximum planned dose of Cy (500 mg/m2) from phase 1) have been treated, and 42, 31, and 33 are evaluable for response, respectively, as of data cut-off (31 July 2009). Median ages in the VDR, VDC, and VDCR arms were 60, 62, and 62 years, respectively; 62%, 63%, and 66% had International Staging System stage lI/III disease, and 38%, 25%, and 33% had Karnofsky Performance Status ≤80%, respectively. The median number of VDR, VDC, and VDCR cycles received is 4.5, 6, and 4, respectively (range 1–12). Best unconfirmed response rates are shown in the Table; patients categorized as very good partial response (VGPR) include those who have no measurable M-protein but have not yet had bone marrow assessments to confirm CR/nCR status. The overall rates of treatment-emergent AEs were 95%, 97%, and 88% for the VDR, VDC, and VDCR arms, respectively, with ≥grade 3 reported in 67%, 59%, and 65%. Peripheral neuropathy (PN) was reported as grade 2/3 in 12%/12% in the VDR, 31%/3% in the VDC, and 12%/9% in the VDCR arms; there was no grade 4 PN reported. Grade 3/4 neutropenia was reported in 5%/5%, 28%/13%, and 23%/9% of pts in the VDR, VDC, and VDCR arms, and grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia in 5%/2%, 9%/0%, and 5%/0% of pts, respectively. One case of grade 3 deep-vein thrombosis was reported in the VDCR arm. Overall rates of serious AEs were 24%, 13%, and 37% in the VDR, VDC, and VDCR arms, respectively. Two pts have died in the VDCR arm, both due to renal failure, considered possibly treatment-related. To date, 6 pts have undergone ASCT in the VDR arm, 5 in the VDC arm, and 3 in the VDCR arm. Median CD34+ yield was 4.7, 6.3, and 6.8 × 106/kg in the VDR, VDC, and VDCR arms, respectively. Conclusions: VDR, VDC, and VDCR are highly active and generally well-tolerated regimens in previously untreated MM. Response rates in the VDCR arm appeared somewhat higher than in the VDR and VDC arms at this early time point, although there also appeared to be higher rates of serious AEs, including possible treatment-related mortality in the VDCR arm. Following an interim analysis, dosing in the VDC arm was modified to include Cy on day 15 to examine if this will improve CR rates. Ten pts have been enrolled to date.

Table.

Best unconfirmed response

Regimen Evaluable patients ORR % CR (sCR) % VGPR* (nCR) % PR % 
VDR 42 90 12 33 (10) 45 
VDC 31 87 35 45 
VDCR 33 94 15 (3) 42 (3) 36 
Regimen Evaluable patients ORR % CR (sCR) % VGPR* (nCR) % PR % 
VDR 42 90 12 33 (10) 45 
VDC 31 87 35 45 
VDCR 33 94 15 (3) 42 (3) 36 
*

Patients categorized as VGPR include those who have no measurable M-protein but have not yet had follow-up bone marrow assessments to confirm CR/nCR status

CR, complete response; sCR, stringent complete response; nCR, near CR; ORR, overall response rate; PR, partial response; VGPR, very good partial response

Disclosures:

Kumar:CELGENE: Research Funding; MILLENNIUM: Research Funding; BAYER: Research Funding; GENZYME: Research Funding; NOVARTIS: Research Funding. Flinn:Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding. Hari:Milennium Pharmaceuticals Inc.: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Celgene: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau. Callander:Millenium: Research Funding. Noga:Millennium Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Stewart:Takeda-Millenium, Celgene, Novartis, Amgen: Consultancy; Takeda, Millenium: Research Funding; Genzyme, Celgene, Millenium, Proteolix: Honoraria. Raje:Celgene: Research Funding; Novartis: Research Funding; AstraZeneca: Research Funding. Rifkin:Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; Celgene: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; Amgen: Speakers Bureau; Cephalon: Speakers Bureau. Shi:Millennium Pharmaceutical Inc.: Employment. Webb:Millennium: Employment, Equity Ownership. Richardson:Keryx: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; Johnson and Johnson: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; Celgene: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; BMS: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau.

Author notes

*

Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.