Abstract 1182

Poster Board I-204

Cyclophosphamide (Cy) in combination with busulfan is an important component of myeloablative conditioning regimen used prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for both malignant and non-malignant conditions. We have previously reported up to 20 fold inter-individual variation in the pharmacokinetics (PK) of Cy in patients with beta thalassaemia undergoing HSCT [Blood (ASH Annual Meeting Abstracts), Nov 2004; 104: 99]. PK parameters of Cy have been shown to be associated with regimen related toxicity and outcome of transplant. To explain the basis of the inter-individual variation in Cy PK, we have developed a population PK model. We analyzed the PK of Cy in consecutive children with beta thalassaemia major who received HSCT from HLA identical matched sibling donor at the Christian Medical College, Vellore from 2001 till 2004. A total of 900 cyclophosphamide concentration measurements from 55 patients were included and correlated with age, sex, body weight and 10 polymorphisms in enzymes involved in the metabolism or biotransformation of Cy namely GST A1, M1, T1, P1, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and ALDH genes. Non-linear mixed effects modeling analysis was performed with Monolix (version 2.4, www.monolix.org) to investigate the effect of patient covariates on PK, and to estimate the relative magnitude of inter-individual and inter-occasion variability. A two-compartment pharmacokinetic model was used to describe the data. The pharmacokinetic parameters estimated included elimination rate constant and volume (ke (1/hr), V (L or L/kg)), and the inter-compartmental parameters (k12 and k21 (1/hr)). The distribution of the parameters was assumed log-normal. Body weight was the main covariate which explained the largest portion of the IIV (28% and 20% of V and ke IIV, respectively). In addition, the following genotypes showed differences in the pharmacokinetics: GSTP1*B (1.7X higher ke in MUT versus WT or HET; p<0.05), CYP3A4*1B (2X higher ke in HET versus WT; p<0.05), and ALDH1A1*2 (2X higher ke in HET versus WT; p<0.05). We have developed a population PK model for Cy in thalassaemic children by considering morphological and biological covariates, which explains more than 45% and 22% (V and ke IIV, respectively) of the variation in Cy PK in these patients. This model-based algorithm may be used to design and plan targeted dose therapy in this group of pediatric patients and to predict the risk of toxicity and outcome of HSCT.


No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

Author notes


Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.