Abstract

Von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers tether platelets to subendothelium exposed at the site of vessel injury to initiate the bleeding arrest. Upon synthesized, VWF multimers are either constitutively secreted or packed into the storage granules, where they are enriched in ultra-large (UL) multimers that are active in forming spontaneous high strength bonds with the GP Ib-IX-V complex on platelets. This hyper-reactivity of ULVWF multimers is in contrast to VWF multimers circulating in plasma (pVWF) that need to be activated by modulators or high fluid shear stress to aggregate platelets. The biochemical and structural bases for the functional difference between ULVWF and pVWF multimers are not known. We have recently shown that a portion of pVWF, but not ULVWF multimers contain surface exposed free thiols in the D3 and C domains. High fluid shear stress promotes the formation of new disulfide bonds utilizing the thiols to enhance VWF binding to platelets, suggesting that the shear-induced thiol-disulfide exchange may serve as a mechanism for the shear-induced activation of pVWF multimers. ULVWF freshly secreted from endothelial cells forms string-like structures that can be elongated by pVWF multimers through a covalent means. The different thiol distribution between ULVWF and its plasma counterpart may be caused by the former being cleaved by the zinc metalloprotease ADAMTS-13 at a single peptide bond of Y1065-M1606 in the A2 domain. Here, we provide several lines of evidence to demonstrate that ADAMTS-13 also contains a reductase-like activity that plays a role in cleaving ULVWF strings under flow conditions and maintaining circulating VWF multimers in an inactive (thiol) state. First, more than 90% of pVWF non-specifically adhered to the surface of a cone-plate viscometer when pVWF was exposed to a pathological high shear stress of 100 dyn/cm2 for 3 min at 37°C. The adhesion was prevented by recombinant (r) ADAMTS-13 or a truncation mutant that lacked the catalytic domain. Second, rADAMTS-13 prevented the shear-induced thiol-disulfide exchange so that free thiols remained in pVWF after shear exposure. This activity was not blocked by 5 mM of EDTA and was detectable with the N-terminal truncated mutant, suggesting that it is independent of the VWF-cleaving activity. We further found that rADAMTS-13 was able to reduce disulfide bonds, converting the disulfide forms of sheared pVWF to the thiol forms, suggesting that ADAMTS-13 prevents the thiol-disulfide exchange by disulfide bond reduction, not a steric hindered effect. Third, ADAMTS-13 contains the surface exposed thiol(s) that is necessary for the metalloprotease to attack and break a disulfide bond. Unlike VWF multimers, these thiols remained after the metalloprotease was exposed to a pathological high shear stress of 100 dyn/cm2. Fourth, using a series of N- and C-terminal truncation mutants, we located the thiol(s) potentially involved in VWF reduction to the 2nd to 8th TSP-1 motifs and CUB-1 domain of ADAMTS-13. Finally, ethylmaleimide (NEM), which blocks free thiols, did not inhibit rADAMTS-13 to cleave pVWF multimers under static conditions and in the presence of urea and barium. NEM-treated rADAMTS-13 retained only 27.5±4.9% activity in cleaving ULVWF strings under flow conditions as compared to untreated enzyme. These data characterizes a novel mechanism that plays a regulatory role in cleaving ULVWF strings and maintaining the circulating pVWF multimers in inactive forms.

Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

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