Colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) is the major regulator of tissue macrophage development and function. The effects of CSF-1 are mediated by the CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R), a class III receptor tyrosine kinase belonging to the PDGF receptor family. To study CSF-1R structure/function in macrophages using both genetic and proteomic approaches, we developed a novel, CSF-1R-deficient, mouse bone marrow macrophage (BMM) line (MacCsf1r−/−) (

Yu et al.,
J. Leuk. Biol.
: in press,
). MacCsf1r−/− macrophages are maintained in GM-CSF. Retroviral expression of the wild type CSF-1R fully rescued the CSF-1-induced survival, proliferation, differentiation and morphological characteristics, which resemble those of primary BMM. We have studied CSF-1-induced covalent modifications of the receptor in MacCsf1r−/− cells. Activation of the CSF-1R involves ligand-induced receptor dimerization and trans-phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic domains. Besides tyrosine phosphorylation, CSF-1 stimulation results in disulfide bonding of the CSF-1R dimers and cysteine mutagenesis experiments revealed that specific residues in the kinase domain are involved. Inhibition of the disulfide bond formation significantly compromised CSF-1-induced CSF-1R tyrosine phosphorylation, indicating its requirement for full receptor activation. Analysis of the regulation of CSF-1-induced CSF-1R interchain disulfide bonding revealed the participation of third party molecules with additional CSF-1R post-translational modifications. The importance of ligand-induced disulfide bonding for class III receptor tyrosine kinase activation may not be restricted to the CSF-1R as interchain disulfide bonding of PDGF receptor dimers is also ligand-induced.

Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

[Supported by NIH grants CA26504, PO1 CA100324 (ERS)]

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