Abstract

Patients with relapsed multiple myeloma (MM) previously treated with bortezomib and lenalidomide often fail to respond to further therapies. To identify potential new treatment approaches for MM, we used Luminex technology to screen a library of 1,120 compounds provided by the Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation.

By multiplex cytokine array, we identified benzimidazoles including the anthelmintics mebendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, nocodazole and pyrvinium pamoate, as inhibiting the production of cytokines essential for MM cell growth and survival, such as IL-6 (inhibition rate 40–70%), MIP-1α (inhibition rate 65–75%), VEGF (inhibition rate 75%), and soluble IL-6R (inhibition rate 40–52%). Consequently, these anthelmintics demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of myeloma cell (RPMI-8226, H929, U266 and MM1S) proliferation. The lead compound, nocodazole, caused nuclear fragmentation and caspase-8 activation in MM cell lines and primary CD138+ cells in dose- and time-dependent fashion (IC50: 30–60 nM). Importantly, growth and survival signals provided by bone marrow stromal cells in bone marrow co-cultures failed to protect MM cells from nocodazole-induced cell death. In the apoptotic cells, caspase-8 was more activated than caspase-9, suggesting that mitochondrial signaling is not a major apoptotic pathway. Cell cycle analysis indicated that G2/M cell cycle arrest reached a peak at 17 hr. Sub-G1 proportion was strongly increased after treatment for 24 hr in all tested cell lines. Electron microscope (EM) and nuclear staining studies consistently showed the accumulation of metaphase cells, and morphologic elongation at 7 hr, at which time G2/M arrest was obvious. Most of the elongated cells had only one nucleus, suggesting that they failed to progress to mitosis due to overall microtubular network disarray.

We conclude that nocodazole exposure induced microtubular network disarray with cell elongation, and G2/M arrest with a late stage mitotic block resulting in cell death.

Benzimidazoles including nocodazole, traditionally used as antihelmintic drugs, have shown antitumor activity against hepatocellular, lung and adrenocortical carcinoma, and melanoma. In our study, we identified the anthelmintic compound nocodazole as a new anti-myeloma agent. Nocodazole warrants further investigation for its anti-MM effects in vitro and in vivo.

Disclosures: Lentzsch:Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation: Research Funding.

Author notes

Corresponding author